Iran nowadays is an Islamic country that is ruled by a President and by a Wilayat el Faqih (in English he is called the Governor of the Jurisprudence ). This Wilayat el Faqih or Governor of the Jurisprudence has a really great religious and political influence (more powerful than the president) in Iran and among the Shia'a Muslims over the world.
My question is: Why throughout history has this position (Wilayat el Faqih) existed only in Iran, even though its existence was provided for under shariah law from the starting of Islam religion? And what was the function of the Governor of the Jurisprudence to begin with?
On a website they mentioned that Islamic theology of the Quietists argued that the Imam el Mehdi el Montazar shall appear again, and most probably when Judgment Day appears. However, with the absence of the Imam, there is the need for a Wali el Faqih, or as the translation goes: Governor of the Jurisprudence. This idea was evolved and upgraded by Khomeini, and was of making Khomeini in post-revolutionary years as "the supreme leader". Guess who self-proclaimed himself as the Wali: Khomeini himself.