First, labor conditions & laws vary greatly, even in today's developed world, so you cannot assume that just because a country is a modern economic power, it has labor laws similar to yours. Nor should you immediately assume that your country's approach is "good" and another "bad". For example, some people would argue that government requiring employers to provide paid maternity leave can cause employers to avoid hiring or promoting women of child-bearing age, for fear they will have to hold open a critical position if a woman has a baby. I know quite a few American women who would rather get good jobs and take little maternity leave than be closed out of such jobs.
Second, in pretty much all countries that have/develop a capitalist economy, have/get democratic government, & go through an industrial revolution, there is a broad pattern of workers being "exploited" through poor working conditions followed by movements to improve the lot of workers that result in laws, labor unions, and other structures to protect workers. The way this pattern plays out is determined by the history, population mix, economy, political structures, timing of events, and other factors in each country.
Third, it is great that you are interested labor history and concerned about working conditions around the world. I, for one, hope you will read up and learn more about the different ways countries wrestle with the problem of how to have a efficient capitalist economy, along with good jobs and working conditions for all. I also hope that you will see that this balance is one that the countries of the world must, increasingly, face together. I do love my Apple devices, but I'm concerned that I paid less for my iPad because the Chinese workers who made it put in long hours in grim conditions. Similarly, I love my Starbucks lattes, but I wish the barristas who serve me didn't have to support families on miserably low salaries.