The common explanation for the usage of Australia as a penal colony is that the American Revolution made the usage of America as one no longer tenable. From Wikipedia, "On Convicts in Australia":
Alternatives to the American colonies were investigated...
But I'm wondering why then are the methods so different? If they just switched over, the model should be the same logically speaking.
The usage of America as a penal colony is explained as a transfer of prisoners sold as indentured servants. Were these indentured servents treated differently than other indentured servants? I believe that the colony of Georgia, which would be similar to penal colonies in Australia never operated. Is it in any way a model for Australia? How did the Australian model, convict transport, develop?