It's not so "suddenly", it was a process spanning 2000 years and two major religions. But it is possible to make a quick summary of why:
The Jewish religion created two "spin-offs" Christianity and Islam, that ended up being the official religion of two empires, the Roman and the Umayyad Empire.
Both these religions were very proselyting, making it of the highest importance to convert people so they could be saved for an afterlife. In Christianity's case this even excused converting people by force, as the afterlife often was seen as more important than this life.
The Muslim empires ruled large parts of the world up until the end of the 19th century, and although not always intensely proselyting, at the very minimum you were encouraged to convert as this would get you lower taxes.
The Roman empire did split quite soon after becoming officially Christian, but the various shifting empires the followed in Europe spread Christianity throughout Europe. And then, by mostly luck, a European happened upon the gold-rich and easily conquered Americas, instantly making Europe wealthy and kick-starting several Christian Empires bent on conquering and converting the world.
As a result, the highly regional god Yahweh has become the most widely worshiped god on the planet.