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Is there any research that has attempted to estimate the ratio of commerce to residence, or of shopkeepers to residents in other trades, for preindustrial towns? Or are there old census sources where such data is recorded?

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The most comprehensivesuch census, until possibly the 18th or even 19th century is the Doomsday book commissioned by William I to determine his new tax revenues. –  Pieter Geerkens Mar 26 at 6:39
    
I seriously doubt such would be useful as how would you classify say a blacksmith who after all also sells his wares. And that'd be a large portion of the population. –  jwenting Mar 26 at 7:38
    
I remember seeing some discussion of things like this in Braudel's "The Identity of France." Of course, the answer to your question is going to vary by time, region, and size of town. –  two sheds Nov 13 at 16:11

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