The major causes of the Bolshevik revolution can be seen in their two most popular slogans "All power to the Soviets" and "Peace, Bread, and Land". The Russian revolution was in some ways a conclusion of previous revolutions in Russia (1898, 1905, the March 1917 revolution) in that the peasants still did not have control over their land and the industrial minority were still unhappy with the socioeconomic situation in Russia. Added to this growing pressure on the monarchy was Russia's involvement in WWI, a war it was not technologically or militarily prepared for. As a result, the casualties in the tsar's armies were massive and many soldiers were desperate for a peaceful withdraw from the war.
Egypt is different in that it isn't quite confluence of events 1917 Russia was. It isn't facing a major war, the economic conditions are rather different, and the socialist parties are not dominant. As a previous commentator noted, Egypt's opposition is nowhere near as united as the Russian opposition was, indeed an argument can be made that Egypt's opposition isn't even as united as Russia's was during the height of the Bolshevik/Menshevik split. While the Russian opposition was focused on the extent of socialist reform, the Egyptian opposition is fractured on more fundamental motivations, mainly between the Islamists and the more secular element of the revolution.
The split within the Egyptian opposition is actually a common division in Arabic politics for several hundred years. In most Arab countries(Egypt included), western powers have manipulated Arab governments for their personal gains. As a response, some factions believed the best way to combat this was through becoming more like the West to surpass or become on par with those powers, or to turn towards a uniting factor such as pan-Islamic or pan-Arabic sentiment to run out the invaders.
In Egypt, the government under Mubarak ruthlessly suppressed the Islamic movement, particularly the Muslim Brotherhood. As a result, the more religious and traditional elements wanted his government to resign. The modernist factions were similarly outraged by the repressive nature of the regime and also wanted to bring an end to Mubarak. At this point, the major demand of the Egyptian protesters are for a more representative, open, and less repressive government. Unlike the Russian revolution, there is no unified goal towards a broader societal reformation. Also it is quite arguable that the Russian revolution was under far greater pressure as there was the threat of not only the retaliation from the government, but a German invasion and then the threat of an externally organized and funded counter-revolution by the great powers of Europe.