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Given the importance of the holy land to the Christians, as well as the importance of many great cities (Alexandria, Damascus and Jerusalem) to the Byzantine empire, why were not there any early attempts to recapture those strategic and religiosuly important land from the Arabs (either by the Byzantines or Rome)? Were the Byzantines so exhausted from their wars with the Sassanids that they relinquished these lands to the Arabs?

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Questions that ask about counterfactuals, including Why didn't X do Y? invite speculation and discussion rather than answers. H:SE does not want to discuss alternate histories. H:SE may wish to consider holding these questions to a higher standard of preliminary research (for example proving that there were strategic considerations rather than bluntly asserting it). – Mark C. Wallace Jun 11 '14 at 11:51

Because they were too busy trying to keep the Arabs from capturing Constantinople (in the 700s) and forcing them out of Anatolia (after that).

If they had managed that, I'm sure it would have gotten on the agenda. But the Islamic forces remained too strong.

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