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Traditionally the following stages are counted for the political order of the Ancient Rome:

  • Kingdom
  • Republic
  • Empire (subdivided into Principate and Dominate)

The "kingdom" is usually regarded as monarchy, the "republic" as the republic in modern meaning and "principate" and "dominate" as either monarchy or military dictatorship (with dominate more often regarded as monarchy).

I would question the claim that political order has changed sufficiently in ancient Rome from the era of Romulus until at least the reign of Heraclius.

Just some facts.

  • The Roman state was always called "res publica" both in the times of the kingdom and later until Latin language cased to be used. Even Catholic Church centuries later used this term to refer the Christian world. The terms "regnum" and "imperium" were also widely used under republic, later and before.

  • The Roman rex was an elected public magistrate. He was suggested by the senate and elected by the people of Rome via the Curiate Assembly for a fixed term of 6 years (they extended the term with legal tricks via formal adoption). Then a special law should be passed to grant him imperium. His power was not hereditary and was restricted by the senate and the assemblies. At one occasion when Romulus freed some prisoners at his own will the senators became very discontent.

Thus it is quite difficult to see how the Roman kingdom was not somewhat like a modern presidential republic.

  • The event known as expelling the kings was in fact redistribution of powers between the magistrates. The very office of the king (a ceremonial one now on) remained all the time under rupublic until the rule of Theodosius who abolished it.

Thus it is unevident how Roman republic was not a "constitutional monarchy" with a ceremonial king alike medieval Japan.

  • Under republic some new offices raised that were not less powerfull than that of rex. Those are of military tribunes and dictators. Arguably Roman dictator was even more powerful than a rex (he even had twice the number of lictors than a rex).

  • Under republic (and possible under kingdom as well) the title "Imperator" was quite frequently used to refer to military leaders. For example Sulla was proclaimed Imperator in 86 b.c. Multiple imperators at the same time were all under republic, under principate and under dominate.

  • The power of the state leader under principate was due to the office of popular tribune which had veto power. Those now called "emperors" actually had different sets of public offices. Tiberius, for example, never was proclaimed Imperator.

  • The title of consul continued well into Empire period although the title fell in prestige because it had no veto power unlike that of tribune. Still the rule of Heraclius started from being proclaimed consul (along with his father).

  • Under dominate order it was theorized that there should be four emperors at a time, a practice unusual for a monarchy. The practice of several emperors at a time(although usually relatives) was continued till the end of the Byzantine empire. This follows the previous tradition of two consuls or two military tribunes at a time. The term of office of an emperor under dominate was theoretically set at 8 years.

Thus it is difficult to see how the Dominate as was envisaged by Diocletian was more autocratic than principate as often asserted

  • The senate always retained theoretical power for electing new emperors and disposing the ruling ones. For example Phocas was disposed by the senate and Heraclius was elected instead.

Summing the above up, it can be said that through the whole period from Romulus to at least Heraclius

  • The positions of supreme magistrates were not hereditary, although often occupied by relatives or people of the same clan
  • The supreme ruler could be elected and disposed by the senate
  • The source of power theoretically belonged to the people and the senate
  • The supreme office had a fixed term in theory with some exceptional cases
  • There were always possibilities to acquire dictatorial powers even without changing the state political system, and this was in fact often done throughout the whole Roman history.
  • The real power of a leader mostly depended on his personal qualities rather than on the name of his office and epoch.

So what are the reasons to ascribe certain periods in roman history to monarchy and certain to republic? Was not the political regime always the same with only names of the offices changing?

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The word 'theory' runs in various forms through your whole exposition. But there is a world of difference between theory and practice, between rhetoric and actual actions. –  Felix Goldberg Dec 27 '12 at 17:07

3 Answers 3

Interesting question but ultimately the answer is no. There are also various continuities between Muscovite Russia, Peter's Empire, the Soviet Union, Yeltsinite Russia and Putin's Russia but they are really not all the same thing.

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I believe that the main difference in these epoches is not the formal powers of involved offices or titles, but which social layers have what influence in politics.

In line with that I would say that the creation of the tribunates was a result of the conflict between plebejans and patricians. Due to the expansion of the Empire between 300 and 0, the raise of slavery etc., these social classes ceased to be the ones that defined Roman society.

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The major change from the Republic to the Empire was the decision to keep for life as the head of state first Caesar then Augustus. Thus it put the top job in the hands of one man as long as that man was alive. There was no peaceful way to remove the Emperor at this point and since they controlled the army (or they would not be emperor) they had military power over the rest of society.

The change from Kingdom to Republic was maybe more subtle but put two men in charge instead of one. Thus allowing for a balance of power at the top. Again, this is a break with the previous regime.

In a similar way, you could say that the 4th of 5th French Republics are the "same": president, prime ministers, ministers, parliament, elections, yadda. Or that the French and English prime minister have the same function. Overall, you would not be too wrong but the devil is in the details. Thus why we refer to the Roman Empire, the Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantium Empire as different beasts even though they are all called "empires" and come from the same root.

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2  
You possibly confused something, but Augustus was never proclaimed dictator. Even more, the office of dictator completely went out of use after Caesar and was never used again. –  Anixx Feb 10 '12 at 15:42
    
Abolishment of the dictator's office was one of the features of the coming principate. –  Anixx Feb 10 '12 at 15:48
    
Must not have enough coffee today... –  Sardathrion Feb 10 '12 at 15:58
    
Sulla before Caesar was also proclaimed dictatror for indefinite term. There were only two such people. I also will tell you when Augustus was the head of state. He was in 33, 31-23, 5 and 2 BC. –  Anixx Feb 10 '12 at 16:17
    
The change from Kingdom to Republic was not as subtle, as it happened via a revolution, and ended in the exile of the ruling dynasty. It even led to a series of wars (one of them nearly destroyed Rome) when the exiled rulers, the Tarquinii, tried to return to power by inciting neighboring cities (and the Gauls) to attack Rome. –  vsz Mar 7 at 20:26

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