Are there any references to ancient or medieval Indians consuming (and producing) alcohol?
And if so, what kind of alcohol was produced (i.e. wine, beer, whiskey, etc.)?
Yes. Alcohol has been produced in India from ancient times. But they may not qualify as "wine, beer, whiskey".
The above is quoted from here.
Alcoholic beverages have been mentioned in ancient texts. The Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas and Vedas mention alcohol. See this for references to texts. An old book written around 1922 also gives descriptions from the Vedic/Puranic literature.
In fact, one study by F. R. Allchin suggests that India may be the original home of alcohol distillation.
Also take a look at the history of inebriation in India, specifically the section "Intoxicating Drinks and Drunkards in Ancient Indian Art".
This gives an idea of the kind of beverages prepared.
Here is a news report about an ancient alcohol recipe.
See also the Wikipedia entry on alcohol in ancient India.
Just an addendum to Rajib’s comprehensive answer. The Buddhist Jātakas are a collection of stories about the historical Buddha’s previous lives – the Theravada version contains roughly 550. Many feature animals as characters and are drawn from folkloric sources. The Kumbha-jātaka (No. 512) contains an explanation of the origins of alcohol as an intoxicant. It also suggests that drinking alcohol is not only a personal vice, but also a scourge on society.
Later he visits an ascetic named Varuṇa and introduces him to the drink. (From their names come two terms for alcohol, surā and vāruṇī.) Later they take some to the king, and when he requests more they take note of the components and make the drink themselves.
At the next city, the next king prepares to try the drink. Seeing this, the god Sakka (a version of Indra who appears in many Jātakas) realizes, “if he shall drink strong drink, all India will perish,” and descending recites a long stretch of verse detailing the nasty effects of drinking alcohol.
According to Wikipedia, “the Jatakas were originally amongst the earliest Buddhist literature, with metrical analysis methods dating their average contents to around the 4th century BCE.” Judging by this one, drinking must have been fairly widespread by that time. It’s hard to tell what sort of alcohol would result from this “natural” method of production, though!
Source: The Jātaka, or Stories of the Buddha’s Former Births (1895, translated by E. Cowell), Vol. 5 pp. 5-11.