This answer is for a previous version of the question
France did have extensive colonies in West Africa as well as a colony in Lebanon, but some of the linguistic picture you see today is due to especial effort at the end of the colonial period. Most African colonies achieved independence in the 1950's and 1960's. While the French government reconciled itself to the fact that the colonial age was over and that they would not be directly owning those lands, there was a strong desire to maintain leadership in the region. One of the ways this desire was channeled was into the concept of "la francophonie", meaning the French speaking world with its cultural center in France.
Several of the West African countries have the constitution written in French and their law courts operate based on French civil law. This sometimes has a desirable effect in countries where many languages are in common use as it can provide a useful lingua franca for the government to use, rather than the language of a specific ethnic group.
France also divested itself of its African colonies somewhat more gracefully than the British by passing the Loi Cadre in 1956. It provided a path to independence that, while not completely peaceful, allowed former colonies to associate with France for diplomatic, cultural, and military purposes. The major exception to this is in Algeria, where a very nasty war was fought from 1954 to 1962. Under colonialism, Algeria was classified as "part of France", and so they were very reluctant to let it go. That experience is more similar to the rebellions against British rule in Kenya and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).
While there are many former British colonies in Africa (often Commonwealth members) that have adopted English as an official language, there was not the conscious push to weave English as deeply into the life of the nation. Egypt and Sudan had little trouble choosing Arabic as their language of government, and while Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania have English as an important official language, much is instead in transacted in Swahili.
While the association with France has not necessarily brought the West African nations peace and prosperity, it has forged a bond that looks like it will continue into the future. The are far closer ties between France and countries like Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire than you would find between the United Kingdom and Tanzania or Uganda. A recent example of this ongoing relationship is when the French military was asked to recapture northern Mali from Islamic separatists in 2013.
For an extensive discussion of French and English language policy in Africa and elsewhere, I recommend the book "Empires of the Word" by Nicholas Ostler.