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The main language in the Middle East is Arabic, however English and French considered as a secondary language. Especially in Algeria, Morocco and Lebanon (there are other countries..) people still use French daily and as a secondary language.

The main question is: When the Ottoman Empire 'conquered' several countries why didn't they force use of their language? The occupation period was long enough, comparable to English and French occupation.

Was the Ottoman colonization different in this relation from French? Or the territory was in some way different than other African territories?

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Are you asking why French is used, or why Turkish isn't used? –  Joe Jul 2 at 17:18
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I think this question shows some missing general knowledge. Africa's huge part was colonized by France and British Empire, and they made their language for official language. These regions - often multicultured regions - spent around 200+ years of european rule, and they typically kept their language. With a short research on randomly picked country this would be evident. –  CsBalazsHungary Jul 2 at 21:10
    
@CsBalazsHungary my question was why france and britain colonised africa made their lnaguage how ever ottoman empire for example did not make that as an official –  moudiz Jul 3 at 6:40
    
@moudiz then the question's essence is not properly stated, if you allow me, I will correct it. In that way it makes sense. –  CsBalazsHungary Jul 3 at 7:51
    
please notify me here if this wasn't what you asked for. –  CsBalazsHungary Jul 3 at 8:12

2 Answers 2

This answer is for a previous version of the question


France did have extensive colonies in West Africa as well as a colony in Lebanon, but some of the linguistic picture you see today is due to especial effort at the end of the colonial period. Most African colonies achieved independence in the 1950's and 1960's. While the French government reconciled itself to the fact that the colonial age was over and that they would not be directly owning those lands, there was a strong desire to maintain leadership in the region. One of the ways this desire was channeled was into the concept of "la francophonie", meaning the French speaking world with its cultural center in France.

Several of the West African countries have the constitution written in French and their law courts operate based on French civil law. This sometimes has a desirable effect in countries where many languages are in common use as it can provide a useful lingua franca for the government to use, rather than the language of a specific ethnic group.

France also divested itself of its African colonies somewhat more gracefully than the British by passing the Loi Cadre in 1956. It provided a path to independence that, while not completely peaceful, allowed former colonies to associate with France for diplomatic, cultural, and military purposes. The major exception to this is in Algeria, where a very nasty war was fought from 1954 to 1962. Under colonialism, Algeria was classified as "part of France", and so they were very reluctant to let it go. That experience is more similar to the rebellions against British rule in Kenya and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).

While there are many former British colonies in Africa (often Commonwealth members) that have adopted English as an official language, there was not the conscious push to weave English as deeply into the life of the nation. Egypt and Sudan had little trouble choosing Arabic as their language of government, and while Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania have English as an important official language, much is instead in transacted in Swahili.

While the association with France has not necessarily brought the West African nations peace and prosperity, it has forged a bond that looks like it will continue into the future. The are far closer ties between France and countries like Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire than you would find between the United Kingdom and Tanzania or Uganda. A recent example of this ongoing relationship is when the French military was asked to recapture northern Mali from Islamic separatists in 2013.

For an extensive discussion of French and English language policy in Africa and elsewhere, I recommend the book "Empires of the Word" by Nicholas Ostler.

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The aim of the question changed significantly, so some edit will be needed. –  CsBalazsHungary Jul 3 at 7:56
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@CsBalazsHungary however his answer is really good , he explained many thing, I am reading the links he added and I am doing some researches before asking him questions –  moudiz Jul 3 at 8:18
    
Agreed, I just wanted to send him a notification about the question's scope. –  CsBalazsHungary Jul 3 at 8:31

The Turks did not usually occupy the countries they conquered and did not impose any language requirements. They were completely satisfied as long as the countries paid their taxes. Other than a few Beys, the only Turks around would be tax collector, and perhaps a few soldiers to enforce customs. Remember, too, that most of the countries in the Turkish empire had many different languages to begin with. For example, in Algeria, Arabic, Berber and Tamasheq were just three of the many languages spoken. Turkish was just added to the list.

The French differed because they required knowledge of French for many official functions and the French involved themselves much more heavily in the their colonies beyond mere collection of taxes. In particular, they sponsored large efforts to build schools, all French-speaking.

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why french involved more on their colonies ? what was the reason ? –  moudiz Jul 4 at 8:08

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