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This article on the end of the ancient Egyptian civilization posits four different points at which the civilization ended:

Is it the definitive end of native Egyptian rule (at least until the 20th century)? In this case the answer would be the flight of King Nectanebo II in 342 BC. Is it Egypt's absorption into the Roman Empire in 30 BC? Or the last appearance of the ancient hieroglyphic script just before AD 400? Or the closure of the last pagan temples in the sixth century?

The article seems to argue that the final option, the closing of the last pagan temples is the most appropriate for the end of the civilization. I can find a lot of articles advocating that the end was when the civilization was absorbed into the Roman Empire, but I am wondering is this the majority view amongst academics, and does it make the most sense as the end of the civilization?

I realize this is somewhat opinion based (what history isn't?), but there should be someone who can articulate why one point is the accepted majority, if it exists at all.

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"But what history isn't" :) – Russell May 3 '12 at 15:22
up vote 5 down vote accepted

I think this probably falls into the same category as questions like "When did the Roman Empire Fall?" If you're ever on Jeopardy and somebody asks you that question, you should probably answer "476 AD," but there are entire books written about how and why that isn't the case.

Kind of the same deal here, especially depending on how you want to interpret the "fall" of "Ancient Egyptian Civilization."

I think the jeopardy-answer is probably going to be Rome's annexation of Egypt in 30BC, but since you specifically asked about the Civilization and not merely the State (or one of its various incarnations), if you're going to try and pick a date at all, I suppose the closing of the last temple might be more appropriate.

There are compelling arguments to be made for the date you're looking for to be based around the final Achaemenid conquest of Egypt circa 343 BCE, or Alexander's conquest (or liberation, depending on who you ask, I suppose) of the country circa 332 BCE.

It can be really hard to pin down solid dates on the "fall" of Ancient Egyptian Civilization specifically, since the culture was (and still is!) so infectious and pervasive, although I think by the time the last temples were being shut down and the old language was gasping its last breath in the 4th-5th centuries CE it is probably safe to say that by that point the ancient culture and civilization had at the very least ceased to be dominant and no longer existed in any sort of widespread fashion.

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This is a no answer but the Egyptian civilization never completely ended, as many traditions are still alive today.

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