Prime numbers are those whole numbers greater than 1 which cannot be written as a product of numbers greater than 1. I'm curious about their very early history, say 200 BC and earlier. What I know:
- Apparently Thymaridas (Θυμαρίδας) of Paros knew of prime numbers, around 350 BC
- About 50 years later, Euclid (Εὐκλείδης) of Alexandria proved that there were infinitely many primes
- Eratosthenes (Ἐρατοσθένης) of Cyrene discovered a fast method for finding primes about 100 years after Euclid
But this is only a skeleton, and looks only to the Greeks. What other cultures knew of these numbers? (Many people seem to think -- without good evidence -- that the Ishango bone means that primes were understood in the Paleolithic.) What did Thymaridas know? What is the first mention of prime numbers in a historical source?
Of course I would be happy for a pointer to sources covering this information.