How did Egypt become a protectorate of the British empire in 1914?
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Funny story, that. It all starts with the Suez Canal.
Shipping things between the far east and Europe the long way around Africa was certainly doable, but very very time-consuming and expensive.
Once built, the canal was half owned by the French and half owned by Egypt. However, Egypt's finances were your typical third world despotic mess, so in 1875 the ruler of Egypt was forced to put his one money-making asset up for sale: Egypt's half stake in the Suez Canal. Since it had become a vital link between England and its Indian colonies, England snapped it up.
Obviously this did nothing to stop the economic rot, and Egypt soon found itself so in hock to British and French banks, that the whole country was essentially put into their receivership in October of 1876. Of course the locals weren't very happy with this, so the inevitable revolt against the foreign creditors occurred in 1881. This threatened both the British banker's investments, and the now-vital canal link to India. So the British Imperial impulse immediately kicked into gear, resulting in the 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War, the seizure of both the canal and the country by British troops, and finally the country's absorption into the British Empire.
In 1882, Ahmed Urabi, an Egyptian general, led a rebellion against the Egyptian Khedive, a viceroy to the Ottoman Empire, as at the time Egypt was an Ottoman vassal. The British had strong interests in Egypt, due to among many other things, the Suez Canal, and so, supported the Khedive. At about this time, the Khedive asked the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for help, but received none. Then on June 11th, 1882, riots began, in which 50 European business men, and 250 Egyptians were killed. Though the actual cause of the riots were unknown, the British, blamed it on Ahmed Urabi, bombarded Alexandria, and landed a force in the Canal Zone, a area including the Suez Canal, and proceeded to wipe out Ahmed Urabi's army. On September 13, 1882 the British under Garnet Wolseley, fought and won the Battle of Tel el-Kebir. Ending Urabi rebellion, and restoring the Khedive to the throne. Though it was at first was meant to be a short term occupation, but was dragged out for many reasons, until, Egypt found it's self a protectorate, and later, a Dominion.