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What was the main food source in California during the Spanish and Mexican periods? I'm expecting it was either corn or wheat, but I don't know which.

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Here's an interesting article on the topic, from the Santa Barbara Independent newspaper. It's titled, "What Did the Early Spanish Settlers Eat?" and should answer your questions:

The primary crop was wheat, in addition to significant amounts of corn, beans, barley, and peas. As the mission’s water system developed, more sophisticated irrigation techniques were possible, making for increased agricultural yields.

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This may be referring to the very early period. At some point there were large land grants, which were often used for cattle ranching. –  Ben Crowell Aug 14 at 15:59

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