A recent Skeptics question, Was honey used preserve psychoactive mushrooms in the ancient past?, caught my attention and I came upon the Wikipedia article on the Aztec use of entheogens. The article is poorly sourced, and mostly points to the Florentine Codex, but it also hints towards other sources:
The ancient Aztecs employed a variety of entheogenic plants and animals within their society. The various species have been identified through their depiction on murals, vases, and other objects.
The Wikipedia article on Entheogenic drugs and the archaeological record isn't particularly helpful either, although it does point to Xochipilli and the interactive presentation of the figure in J. Paul Getty museum's website.
I can't seem to be able to find other sources that directly discuss archaeological evidence or contemporary literary evidence other than the Florentine Codex, perhaps because most sources are in Spanish and/or not available online.