In the 13th century, Mongol hordes invaded most of the known world and Genghis Khan's nobles had strong legacies to rule in China, Iran and Central Asia in the the following centuries. What about the Mongol soldiers and common people in the areas? Were they assimilated or dissolved in any sense or do the descendants of Mongols still live in areas other than Mongol proper?
Wikipedia provides an excellent answer on the Descendants of Genghis Khan.
Some of the main points:
It is also worth noting The Ian Ashworth Effect also mentioned in the link above and in this SE Skeptics discussion:
It has been claimed and researched (link to paper) that:
The conclusion from Skeptics was that the research stacked up:
The vast majority of Genghis Khan's Mongols either were driven back to Mongolia or were absorbed into the general population of China. Some modern-day Chinese do retain their Mongol heritage as evidenced in the following linguistic map of Mongol Languages:
Some of the Mongol populations include: Bonan, Mongour, Dongxiang, Yugur, Sogwo Arig, Sichuan Mongols, Yunnan Mongols. Thanks to Dagvadorj for correcting me and pointing that out.
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Genghis Khan's empire had at least four main parts: (modern) Russia, the Middle East (mainlhy Persia), Central Asia (Kazakhstan), and China-Mongolia.
The soldiers who occupied the first three parts (mostly) intermarried with local women. In China-Mongolia (under Kublai Khan), many Mongolians intermarried with Chinese. Only a few Mongolians (between modern Mongolia and Lake Baikal) remained relatively "pure," which is why there are so few of them today. The genes of the others ended up elsewhere.