Imre Nagy and his colleagues were secretly tried and executed."
The "White books" (I-V) including The Counter-revolutionary Conspiracy of Imre Nagy and his Accomplices were made public and are accurate (if not complete, nor analytically acceptable) records.
The incidents behind the decision to engage in a second intervention are well known. Mikoyan produced a minority report against intervention, Zhukov had spoken about the inordinate costs of the planned intervention, and the Yugoslavian and Chinese contacts prevaricated about their positions. Then the Nagy coalition government announced it was leaving the Warsaw Pact. The Political Committee of the Central Committee would not accept this. While the decision to execute Nagy had not been made by November 4 1956, the results of the resistance and then general strike did put the Political Committee into a position where it was easier to execute Nagy.
Key problems with the coalition government of 1956 for the Political Committee's majority:
- Workers' councils (key)
- Threat of an economy managed directly by workers' councils (key)
- Coalition government with pro-socialist parties
- Political purge of people with "Anti-Party bloc" politics from the Communist Party and its apparent refoundation on reformist lines
- Formation of "new" pluralist communist parties (HDIM, Students') (key)
- Re-emergence of the Social Democratic party on a revolutionary basis in the factories (key)
- Re-emergence of the Social Democratic party as a parliamentary party
- Leaving the Warsaw Pact
For Mikoyan, at least some of these factors were viewed with great favour. For Lukacs (interview, published by Outlook as a pamphlet, consult National Library Australia) some of these were positive, some were unavoidable. For the main line in the Political Committee these were abominations as they threatened the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's exclusive rule. The changes threatened two things:
- Monopoly of political rule by the Communist Party (in the Soviet Union) or by the united workers' party (ie: the Communist Party) in the "coalitions" of the soviet-style societies.
- Monopoly of industrial rule by the communist nomenklatura and non-communist party nomenklatura: ie, the threat of a self-governing working class
These features were not present in a revolutionary form in the Czechoslovak events of 1968. And the Soviet Union was not in a recession or inner party political crisis in 1968 which threatened the possibility of revolutionary change spreading to the Soviet Union itself. Finally, the opposition to the intervention in Czechoslovakia was far less stridently opposed—armed workers didn't have to be bombarded out of their factories, student militia didn't retake Parliament square on the 3rd day of Czechoslovak operations—leading to a far reduced need to find scapegoats in Czechoslovakia.