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Since there had not been any offensives launched by either side against the other, why declare war just because Japan had attacked the USA?

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Note that the US was already fairly involved in the war prior to Pearl Harbor. Lend-Lease allowed China, the UK, and the USSR to make use of a tremendous amount of US produced military equipment and supplies. Also, the US was already effectively at war with Germany in the Atlantic merely due to efforts to protect its own shipping. It would have been surprising if Germany did not declare war on the US once the US had officially entered the war. –  Wedge Oct 12 '11 at 7:01
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Lend-lease was not an act of war. –  quant_dev Oct 25 '12 at 11:28
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maybe not, but the attacking of US flagged merchant ships transporting goods to the UK definitely is, and this happened prior to the declaration of war (officially it happened in error, there was even a written order declaring it should not be done, but it happened too often to be error). –  jwenting Feb 25 '13 at 6:55
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@jwenting: Yes, acting on their own, and against Hitler's "official" instructions, a number of German ships sank American ships "accidentally on purpose." –  Tom Au May 7 '13 at 21:27
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I don't mean to be hostile. But what is actually happening in the physical world, is that a bomber is produced in the states, then flies over to Britain from which it drops bombs on German cities. And as far as payment goes it is free of charge. So in the physical world the United States is attacking Germany, but there is this accounting trick that is applied where this American plane is logged as British. And that's supposed to justify all. Just imagine yourself in this situation, if China just started bombing the USA, with an accounting trick agreement with someone else. –  john Jun 21 '13 at 21:01

9 Answers 9

up vote 29 down vote accepted

There actually was an 88-minute long speech from Hitler in the Reichstag on December 11th, 1941, which was four days after the japanese attacks on Pearl Harbor, where he officially declared that Germany would join Japan in the war against the USA. In this speech, he mentioned a few of his personal reasons for this decision.

I think this would be an interesting read regarding this question, and there's a translation by a Mr. Mark Weber on the Website of the Institute of Historical Review

Edit

I need to correct myself a little, the official war declaration was issued 2 hours before the speech, quote taken from the same website as mentioned above:

About two hours before Hitler began his address to the Reichstag, Germany formally declared war against the United States when Reich Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop delivered a diplomatic note to the American Charge d'Affaires in Berlin, Leland B. Morris.

WARNING

Institute of Historical Review is considered by many to be a revisionist, Holocaust-denying institution with links to neo-Nazi organizations. Their translation of Hitler's speech might have been manipulated for propaganda purposes.

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Interesting indeed. –  Massimo Oct 11 '11 at 22:16
    
Very nice, detailed find. –  canadiancreed Oct 11 '11 at 22:25
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It would be nice if you could pull some bullet points from his speech into your post. –  Wedge Oct 12 '11 at 6:05
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@GNi33 You are using "interesting" sources! en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institute_for_Historical_Review "Critics have accused it of being an antisemitic "pseudo-scholarly body" with links to neo-Nazi organizations, and assert that its primary purpose is to disseminate views denying key facts of Nazism and the genocide of Jews and others. It has been described as the "world's leading Holocaust denial organization." I wouldn't trust too much the stuff they put on their webpages. –  quant_dev Oct 22 '11 at 13:50
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@quant_dev oh my god. I didn't know that. I will have a look if I can find the original german speech and write a summary. –  GNi33 Oct 22 '11 at 15:40

The US was already in a naval war with Germany (and not doing real well), was supplying all sorts of arms, supplies, and even warships to Britain, and was flagrantly violating the laws of war applicable to neutrals. Hitler was expecting war at some time in the near future, and chose to declare war first.

Hitler was also counting on the Japanese Navy to at least neutralize the US Navy, and considered the US to be a racially mixed and hence weak nation.

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How very wrong Hitler was, on both accounts here! But really, by all accounts the Japanese military at the time of WWII was heavily modeled on the US military, its technology based on US and European technology, and its training and tactics ultimately American and European. It was playing catch-up with the US and great European powers for many years. –  Noldorin Oct 18 '11 at 1:54
    
@Noldrin - it did pretty well though! Well at least until all it's codes were broken and the other side were reading all it's mail –  none Dec 10 '11 at 16:19
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@Noldorin - Well, if not for a couple of great strokes of luck at Midway, the US Navy could well have been held down for another year or so. Had it been the US carriers that were discovered first with their decks full of fully-fuled planes, things might have turned out very different indeed. –  T.E.D. Apr 3 '12 at 20:42
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and had those carriers been caught with their pants down at the Pearl on 7 December, it's quite possible the US population would have demanded the government seek a "peaceful resolution" with Japan, essentially declaring strict neutrality in the Pacific. –  jwenting May 8 '13 at 5:33
    
The hope for Japanese Navy to neutralize US Navy has nothing to do with declaring war on USA: Japanese Navy was already engaging US Navy. Why not let Japan and USA duke it out in the Pacific as they were already doing? That declaration of war didn't improve anything at all for neither Germany nor Japan. –  Michael Apr 23 at 20:46

During World War II, American aid to the Allies fell under three categories:

  1. Lend-lease aid to Britain and Russia, of an amount roughly equal to the whole of the German war production,
  2. Fighting Japan, Germany's major ally, and
  3. the introduction of ground troops into western Europe.

American "Lend Lease" efforts had troubled Hitler and his admirals all through 1941. This was particularly true after American forces occupied Iceland, and the U.S. extended its zone of protection that far east, meaning that Britain would have to "cover" a relatively short part of the North Atlantic route on its own. Hitler could barely restrain his admirals from attacking U.S. ships.

Basically, Hitler could not win the war without the aid of Japan, because Germany was not strong enough to fight Britain and the Soviet Union alone (at least not after the latter received Lend Lease aid). Hitler could win if Japan could break the back of Britain (in India) or the Soviet Union (in Siberia). And it appeared to Hitler that Japan had, in fact, done this to the United States with its stunning (if incomplete) victory at Pearl Harbor. Journalist William L.Shirer reported in "the Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" that Hitler exulted, "we cannot lose this war, for we have an ally that has not been defeated in 350 years."

Hitler believed that the Japanese had started the process of destroying the U.S. navy, and that his submarines could finish the job. With the U.S. supposedly helpless, Germany and Japan could divide up the eastern hemisphere before finishing their dealings with the Americas.

On the other hand, if the United States fought Japan, that country would not be able to help Hitler finish off Britain and the Soviet Union. If the United States defeated Japan, and allied with China and/or India, Hitler could not win the war even if he conquered Britain and the Soviet Union. Hitler's "best chance" was to help Japan contain the United States in exchange for Japan's help in the eastern hemisphere.

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+1 for we cannot lose this war, for we have an ally that has not been defeated in 350 years , says a lot about japanese history!! –  Beagle Bone Mar 27 '13 at 13:48
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Funny about Hitler's quote, because to that point, the US had never lost a war. Ever. –  Evan Pak May 7 '13 at 21:17
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@EvanPak: But at that time (and even today), the U.S. was less than 350 years old. It was regarded by many Europeans as a "nouveau riche" country, and therefore not to be taken seriously. Of course, we "Americans" know better. –  Tom Au May 7 '13 at 21:26
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@EvanPak: Doesn't 1812-5 count as a sorta loss? –  Felix Goldberg May 7 '13 at 21:57
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@TomAu, according to a lot of the textbooks that I have read, the war of 1812 was a draw, not an outright loss. We'll ignore it for conveniences sake . ;) –  Evan Pak May 7 '13 at 22:25

Because Germany, Italy and Japan were allies, and fighting common enemies together is exactly what a military alliance is about.

By the way, the USA actually wanted to get involved in WWII, because they really didn't like how Germany was conquering most/all of Europe. Pearl Harbour and the Germany/Japan alliance acted as the classic casus belli.

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When you say "... the USA actually wanted..." you mean; Roosevelt really wanted to get involved? Several Senators were opposed to the war up until the Pearl Harbor attack. Ref: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt#Policies –  noocyte Oct 12 '11 at 5:18
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Agreed, "the USA" was a bit too generic. –  Massimo Oct 12 '11 at 6:23
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Also, FDR wanted the US into the war against Germany. He was trying to avoid war against Japan. –  David Thornley Oct 18 '11 at 1:39
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But how do you account for the fact that Japan never declared war on the Soviet Union, despite being Germany's ally? Isn't that what allies do? –  Felix Goldberg May 7 '13 at 21:58

In addition to the lend-lease reasons given by others, Japan had declared war on Britain at the same time as it declared war on the United States. Japan including the British Empire on the war declaration against the United States had to be reciprocated on the German side of the alliance with a declaration of war against the United States (since Britain and Germany had already been at war since 1939 at that point). With Japanese attacks on Malaya and Singapore, threatening Australia further south and India to the west, British ships and imperial troops (mostly from Australia) had to be withdrawn from the Mediterranean and North Africa and redeployed to the Pacific. It continued the pressure on Britain's links to its imperial possessions and dominions in the Indian and Pacific Ocean, which had been a major objective of the North Africa campaign (i.e. cut off the Suez Canal). With the Empire in the Pacific largely unprotected, Germany may have hoped Japan would be able to quickly neutralize the British Empire in the Asia Pacific region.

At the same time, in the Atlantic, Germany could now target American shipping to Britain far more openly. If the Japanese could win quick victories in the Pacific, and the US was slower to react in the Atlantic, the "tit for tat" war declarations (Japan on Britain, Germany on the USA) could have forced Britain out of the war through cutting it off from the Empire and the USA alike. With Britain out of the war, it would have been much harder for the USA to actually become involved in the European theater, and as for the Pacific - well that was always going to be Japan's problem anyway.

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Hitler, not being over-informed in US history or culture, probably felt such warfare was inevitable, and, indeed felt that the multicultural USA would indeed be a weak opponent, and that the prime German war aim would be done by the time they actually came to blows.

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I think you have to consider Hitler's decision in conjunction with his antisemitism and the issues with which he was struggling in early December 1941.

  1. Hitler did not believe that it was in Britain's interest to fight Germany, and that leading government figures, such as Churchill, were backed by "the Jews" of London and manipulating the country. Likewise he believed the USA to be in thrall to "the Jews" of New York.

  2. Hitler also believed that "the Jews" were behind "Bolshevism" in the Soviet Union. Communism was the primal victory of "Jewry's" drive for state decomposition. Consider the purpose of the original Einsatzgruppen was to follow the Wehrmacht and kill "political commissars" which also meant "male Jews" and soon also women and children.

  3. In this ideological space there was a direct push and pull between bombs dropping over Bremen, for example, and the Eastern Front. Or Lend-Lease aid to the Soviets, and so forth. The nexus of that "push and pull" was, for Hitler and all too many Germans, "the Jews."

  4. In the time between October and December, Hitler and co. were debating whether to unleash the "Final Solution" ASAP or "in the spring, after the war." Meanwhile they were "researching" the ways and means of mass death in Auschwitz. A conference was scheduled in Wannsee on December 8 to discuss the coordination of the effort.

  5. First came the Soviet counteroffensive in Moscow on December 5 and then Pearl Harbor on December 7, both of which came as a surprise to Hitler, and threw Hitler into a bit of a stun. It is not known whether it was a euphoric stun or depressive stun - different reputable historians have it going either way with equally convincing arguments. The historian I trust most on this matter, Christopher Browning, is on the euprhoricist side. It rings true with my own impressions that Nazis were optimistic about the war through 1942, got kicked in the stomach at the start of February 1943, and were glum by August 1943.

  6. Hitler emerged from this stun talking for the first time of Weltkrieg (world war). He accepted that the war would last into 1942 and beyond. He declared war on the USA so that his U-boats could get to work, and gave his go-ahead to begin the Final Solution of the Jewish Question while the military aspect of the war was still underway. The Wannsee Conference was rescheduled for January 20, 1942, and work commenced on building the death camps.

  7. In case you were wondering how it makes "military sense" for Germany to devote so many resources to the murder of millions of Jews, remember for the Nazis that was the entire point of the war: to "liberate" Germany from the "Jewish world conspiracy" and win the Lebensraum needed to ensure national survival. It was not a side issue - it all hangs together.

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Hitler, while he had a vision and a goal, didn't plan things far out; rather, he wanted to take advantage of opportunities. He saw the attack on Pearl Harbor as one. Expecting that America would focus on the more direct aggressor, Japan, he declared war on America.

In the war to that point, Pres. Roosevelt wanted to help Britain, and did not want to see her defeated. There were various types of aid, but not much direct involvement. He could not go to war against Germany without good reason, which Hitler handed him. The rest, as they say, is history.

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Hitler thought that by declaring war on the USA, he would persuade Japan to declare war on the USSR in turn. This did not happen, and it is one more strategic mistakes of Hitler.

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could you please provide evidence for this –  ihtkwot May 8 '12 at 15:31
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Really interesting conjecture... Any sources, though? –  Felix Goldberg May 7 '13 at 22:00
    
The U.S. Navy was already attacking German U-boats, and Hitler despised Roosevelt for his repeated verbal attacks against his Nazi ideology. He also believed that Japan was much stronger than it was, that once it had defeated the United States, it would turn and help Germany defeat Russia"history.com/this-day-in-history/… There's ya a citation +1 –  Razie Mah Apr 6 at 18:31

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