Has science been able to determine from the geologic record how our current ice caps compare to those that existed before before the beginning of the last Ice Age? If so, how do they match up? (I tried to ask this on Physics.SE, but it was suggested it was more of a history question)
Perhaps this is what you are looking for. In particular, look at the bottom graph in red, which is an estimate of global ice volume. The data was taken from oxygen measurements in Antarctic ice cores.
Assuming they have their data and estimates close to right, it looks like our current worldwide volume of ice is not a record low for the Pleistocene. However, its pretty close to it. The end of the Oxygen (green) graph looks a bit wierd too. Still, there's nothing on the end of that ice graph that draws the eye to say, "something different is going on here".
WHICH icecaps? If you mean glaciers, WHICH glaciers? Some no doubt extend further, some less far, some didn't exist before the last ice age, for example.
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