Has any state ever performed an "economic attack" against another state, by printing fake money of the victim's currency?
Or, is it known if someone ever considered doing it, and which were the supposed pros and cons?
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Frederick II the Great, king IN Prussia 1740–1786 used to counterfeit currency of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (PLC) on a large scale, for profit and to economically weaken Polish state. Officially PLC wasn't at war with Prussia but the only reason that this and other hostile activities of Frederick the Great were unanswered by PLC was the weakness of Polish administration at that time. (and that's probably the reason why he did it).
Frederick obtained the dies for Polish coins during his raid on Saxony during the Seven Years' War (1756-1763). They were there because at that time PLC was in a personal union with Saxony.
EDIT: Wikipedia piece about this particular episode of Frederick's activity points to those books in English as sources: Hamish M. Scott, The emergence of the Eastern powers 1756–1775 and Norman Davies, Europe: A History
The US government alleges that this has occurred - see Superdollars. Very high quality counterfeit $100 bills flooded the US market. Although it may be that these were merely a way that the responsible institution was funding operations, it is commonly believed that these were also intended to cause inflation within the US by increasing the money supply. I don't see any information about the total value of the counterfeitted currency, or how that relates to MB or M1. One would need to have that value in order to have any hope of estimating the inflationary impact. (and one would have to resolve certain controversies between classical and liberal economics).
That article also references Operation Bernhard, which I think @DVK mentioned.
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During world war 2 , Germany carried out Operation Bernhard , one of the biggest currency counterfeit attempt in history , to destabilize the economy of Britain and the United States.
The operation was named after(and started by) NSDAP member and SS Major Bernhard Krüger , who led the operation from a segregated factory built at Sachsenhausen concentration camp, manned by 142 Jewish inmates.
The operation was started initially , to forge the Bank of England pound notes in denominations of £5, £10, £20, and £50.
By 1945 the production had successfully reached 8,965,080 banknotes with a total value of £134,610,810.
Interestingly after the war , the a part of this counterfeit currency fell into the hands of the jewish underground , who used it to bring displaced persons back to Israel.