How did the "Forty Niners" get to California in 1849?
In 1849, the Panama Canal would not have been built for over 50 years, meaning that ships from the U.S. east coast would have had to sail all the way around South America, through Cape Horn, and up the west coast of South and North America.
And the overland route was fraught with dangers; the travails of the Donner party are too horrible to describe.
Did people actually use these routes? Are there ones that I overlooked? And are there any statistical breakdowns of percentages that used Cape Horn, overland, or other routes?