It is foolish to apply literally the maxims applicable to a mostly-levy army 2500 years ago to more modern forces. There is much of value to be found in The Art of War, as well as much that has faded from applicability over the centuries; one must read with understanding to distinguish one from the other.
Caesar, only 400 or so years subsequent to Sun Tzu, routinely force-marched his veteran legions during the campaigns in Gaul to great effect. The massively efficient organization that was a Roman Legion on campaign, financed by the tributes and looting of an Empire, rarely had difficulty keeping Caesar's legions supplied during these maneuvers, which left the Gauls constantly wondering when and where Caesar's forces would appear next. This ability to surprise the Gauls, and apply superior force consecutively to a series of Gallic forces, were at the core of Caesar's success. Note that several of Caesar's Gallic campaigns were initiated in spring and even winter, when his troops would not have to force march through the heat of a summer afternoon.
Frederick likewise applied the same tactics 1700 years later, again to great effect. Force marching onto the supply lines of one's opponent was the only means (other than relieving a siege) of forcing battle in that era of massive supply trains and linear tactics, and Frederick used this to pick and choose the location and timing of his battles carefully.
In April 1809 Oudinot force-marched his entire 2nd Corps of (mostly) new recruits for 5 days to play a key role in the destruction of Charles's left wing under Hiller. Note that Davout had been stockpiling foodstuffs and other supplies around central Bavaria for 4-6 weeks before Charles invaded, so outrunning supplies was not an issue for Oudinot. Although Oudinot sustained greater then usual attrition from this march, it was more like 10% over the five days than 30. See the excellent descriptions of the early 1809 Campaign in
Saski: Campagne de 1809 en Allegmagne et en Autriche and in Jack Gill: Thunder on the Danube Volume 1.
During the era of Marlborough, Frederick and Naploleon the normal daily routine of an army on campaign was to:
- arise an hour before sunrise, have breakfast, and break camp;
- march for 6-7 hours until mid-day;
- possibly battle in the afternoon for 3-4 hours; and finally
- make camp; forage for additional foodstuffs; maintain equipment; enjoy dinner; and bed down for the night.
If no battle was being fought the men would often siesta for 2 hours after the (light) mid-day meal, as the overnight sleep allowance was typically only 5.5 to 6 hours.
Much of this routine was dictated by the fact that the infantry marched at nearly double the pace at which the supply trains could proceed, bearing in mind that the daily set-up and take-down of kitchens for 10,000 troops (typical division size) was a lengthy operation in and of itself, after which food for the same number of troops had to be prepared. Much of the cooking could occur overnight in order to supply each soldier with his daily (loaf of) bread, but the rest had to take place while there was daylight to see by.
Note also that horses must spend several hours a day eating in order to stay fresh due to the low caloric density of pasture. Oats and other higher-density foodstuffs can be used as an occasional top-up, but will make the horses sick if over supplied.
When a body of men went on a force-march it would forego the afternoon battle and foraging in order to make a second march of 6 or so hours through the heat of the afternoon, under full pack and with unreliable water supply. This would be facilitated when the troops were trained veterans; foodstuffs and water were reliably available; and the weather was accommodating (as in April 1809).
The additional exertion would always lead to a higher rate of breakdown for mean, horses and equipment; but for trained and well-supplied forces this was not overwhelming. Of much greater import to a commander was to minimize, over the entire length of a campaign, the amount of time that his force had to march through the heat of the hot summer afternoons, rather than to worry about a couple of days here and there of forced marching.