There is a Wikipedia article about Persian Gulf naming dispute. I thin the section Atlas and other media is the most interesting for you:
The National Geographic Society uses the name Persian Gulf to refer to this body of water. In 2004, the society published a new edition of its National Geographic Atlas of the World using the term "Arabian Gulf" as an alternative name (in smaller type and in parentheses) for "Persian Gulf". This resulted in heavy protests by many Iranians, especially the Internet user community, which led to the Iranian government acting on the issue and banning the distribution of the society's publications in Iran. On 30 December 2004, the society reversed its decision and published an Atlas Update, removing the parenthetical reference and adding a note: "Historically and most commonly known as the Persian Gulf, this body of water is referred to by some as the Arabian Gulf."
Also at wikipedia, you find Gerard Mercator's map of 1595 showing Persian Gulf terminology (Mare di Mesendin olim Persicus sinus), and Sinus Arabicus (Red Sea).
The German version of the article has a map form 9th century, calling the sea Persian Sea (sorry, I can't confirm it, the map is written with arabian letters.) There are aso many maps from 5/16th century calling it Persian Sea.