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As my favorite ice hockey team became the champion of Poland today, I reminded famous Battle of the Ice that took place in 1242. During the fights, forces of Alexander Nevsky managed to draw Teutonic Knights at the frozen lake Peipus, where they started to slip and in consequence, many of them drowned under the ice.

The question is, where there any other battles in history, in which the ice took such an important role?

I don't mean the usual influence of winter conditions like during Napoleon campaign or Eastern Front during World War II, but the particular case of a battle taking place on the frozen river, lake or sea.

Both land and navy battles counts.

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The Siachen glacier may be of some interest here. – Drux Mar 30 '13 at 7:40
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I recall reading an article ~10 years ago that seemed to indicate that the Battle of the Ice didn't go nearly the way popular Russian historical accounts paint it. Don't recall any details, sadly. – DVK Mar 31 '13 at 2:03
    
@DVK quite likely it never even happened and was an invention of Stalin's propaganda machine. Historical records are rather scarce, the most "reliable" source we have is the old Eisenstein movie. – jwenting Apr 2 '13 at 12:00
up vote 12 down vote accepted

In the Kronstadt Rebellion soviet forces advanced over seasonal sea ice to attack a rebelling naval fortification.

Once again, at the Battle of Ogdensburg, during the War of 1812, British forces attacked American forces over the frozen St Lawrence river. In this case coming under artillery fire whilst on the river, which must have been interesting.

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Thanks, that will surely help me to find some inspiration for a story. :) – Darek Wędrychowski Apr 1 '13 at 23:36
    
@DarekWędrychowski For a story? How interesting. – Nathan Cooper Apr 2 '13 at 9:08

During the Soviet-Finnish "Winter War" of 1939/40 the Soviets attempted to outflank the Finns many times over frozen lakes and the Gulf of Finland. Well-supplied Finnish coastal artillery would blast great holes in the ice, swallowing the exposed Soviet infantry.

[February 10th & 11th] the Russians tried for the first time to outflank the [Mannerheim] line by sending powerful infantry columns on a long, curving march across the thick ice. Before these forces could come ashore behind Finnish lines, however, they were spotted and taken under fire by the coastal batteries in the Koivisto sector, particularly the six-, eight-, and ten-inch weapons emplaced near Saarenpää, on Koivisto Island, and at Humaljoki on the mainland...

The six- and eight-inch weapons were supplied with shrapnel shells that were fused to detonate in airbursts over the heads of the Russian columns like gigantic shotgun blasts. The heavy coastal battery, armed only with shells designed to pierce a battleship's armored deck, could not cause that kind of damage with their elephantine projectiles, but the enormous weight and velocity with which they struck tore great holes in the surface ice, so that each successive strike enlarged the fractures until they turned into chasms. Hundreds of men drowned in the cold black waters, sucked down by the weight of their gear, or froze to death in a matter of seconds as they tried to swim to solid ice.

Source: "A Frozen Hell" by William R. Trotter p 219

The Finns would use frozen lakes as makeshift forward airbases. Here's a Bristol Blenheim light bomber on frozen lake Jukajärvi.

Bristol Blenheim light bomber on frozen lake Jukajärvi

Source: Talvisodan pikkujättiläinen (1999) p. 341, orginally from SA-kuva (Finnish Army Pictures)

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There was an incident during the Battle of Austerlitz where the French bombarded the Russians while they were retreating across the Satschan frozen ponds. This incident caused the ice to break up and hundreds of Russians drowned, perhaps up to 2,000 and they also lost several artillery pieces.

This event was not critical to the battle however as the Russians had already lost and were withdrawing. There is also some contention that the story has been made up or at least exagerated by Napoleon himself and the reality is very few Russian bodies were found after the lakes were drained.

http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/XVII/LXVII/537.extract

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Austerlitz

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andejons already mentioned the March across the Belts, but another example is the final battle of the Dacke War (Dackefejden in Swedish) 1543 took place on the ice of the lakes outside Virserum. Nils Dacke's troops were mainly farmers and they were successful when waging a guerilla war in the forests, but when they met the German landsknecht mercenaries in open terrain they were easily defeated.

Another one that is quite interesting is the capture of the Dutch fleet at Den Helder that is said to be the only case when a cavalry beat a navy.

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Oh boy, this is the moment to speak of the most awesome battle ever.

You see, in winter 1794, a French Hussard regiment was sent to prevent a Dutch fleet, stuck in Den Helder to rejoin british forces. The Dutch Republic was in a state close to civil war and the fealty of those ship was in question.

And so, a cavalry regiment had the exceptionnal opportunity to charge accross the ice and capture a 14 ships navy formation on horse back !

But ... as always, reality is boring, there probably was no fight, and the Dutch admiral most likely just swear an oath not to sail against France while everyone drank hot milk.

I'll be in my office, drinking, listening to classics and crying over our lost opportunities.

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One example is the Battle of Bogesund, a part of the internal conflicts of the Kalmar Union, which led to then Swedish regent Sten Sture the younger being mortally wounded after a cannonball had bounced on the ice, and ultimately allowed Kristian II of Denmark to seize the Swedish throne.

Other battles has taken place on Storsjön, Bysjön, and Viken. There is also a mythological batttle on Vänern.

For a really history-changing event (even if was not an actual battle) which was made possible due to winter conditions, there is the March across the Belts, during which king Charlex X of Sweden managed to cross into the Danish island Sjaelland and threaten Copenhagen. The peace that followed transferred large parts of present Sweden from Denmark-Norway.

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While not directly a scene for major combat, the Lake Ladoga ice road was vitally important to Leningrad during WW2.

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there was quite a bit of combat on the ice road, but of course only the Soviets were actually on the ice. The German forces were aircraft and artillery stationed on the land surrounding the city. – jwenting Apr 2 '13 at 12:01

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