Can anybody explain the historical context and the reasons for which the comic below, preserved to the British Museum, was painted? What is its meaning? Why is Napoleon so little? And, more generally, what role did British cartoonists play in the early 1800 in reference to communicate ideas to public opinion?
This painting 'The Cossack Extenguisher' was drawn by William Elmes in 1813.
Description of the painting: from BritishMuseum
Reason for the painting:
This painting was drawn after the Russian campaign. The result of this campaign was decisive Russian victory. In this campaign Russians often raided the french with light Cossack cavalry which made huge damage to the French army. Cossacks under commander Ataman Matvei Platov (1757-1818) scourged the French during their retreat from Moscow in 1812, and again after their defeat at Leipzig. Hence, Leipzig is shown in the background.
About depiction of Napoleon's height you can refer to the- was napoleon as short as common knowledge states - question on the site.
Roles played by British cartoonists in 19th century:
The original image is in the British Museum it is an Elmes print, published by Tegg in 1813. The page referenced also contains links to related cartoons.
The Library of Congress has a teacher's guide to the history of American Political Cartoons
The image isn't very clear, but the earliest cartoon that I personally remember is one that depicts Charles I's execution - not what we think of as a traditional cartoon subject