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"Attorneys General: Enforcing the Law" by Phyllis Raybin Emert, states that 249 persons, were subjected to deportation to Russia via Finland.

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The leaders of the deportees Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldmann, "declared they will not remain in Russia but will 'return to America to save it'"

Did any of these deportees ever returned to America. If not, what is the reason?

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3  
I don't have an actual answer, but as they were Russian citizens, and as deported it's highly unlikely they would ever be allowed to enter the US again. A special law is not needed for this. It's also notable that both mentioned authors grew disillusioned with the revolution while in Russia, and possibly less interested in "saving" the US from the supposed horrors of capitalism. –  Lennart Regebro Aug 16 '13 at 18:16
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At least one, Emma Goldman, returned to North America (Toronto), visited the US under a temporary visa and spoke publicly, and her body was interred in the US after her death... –  User58220 Aug 19 '13 at 0:37

1 Answer 1

These 249 people were deported under the Immigration act of 1918, which prevents the immigration of

(a) aliens who are anarchists;
(b) aliens who advise, advocate, or teach, or who are members of, or affiliated with, any organization, society, or group, that advises, advocates, or teaches opposition to all organized government;
(c) aliens who believe in, advise, advocate, or teach, or who are members of, or affiliated with, any organization, association, society, or group, that believes in, advises, advocates, or teaches:
    (1) the overthrow by force or violence of the Government of the United States or of all forms of law, or
    (2) the duty, necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers, either of specific individuals or of officers generally, of the Government of the United States or of any other organized government, because of his or their official character, or
    (3) the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property, or
    (4) sabotage;
(d) aliens who write, publish, or cause to be written or published, or who knowingly circulate, distribute, print, or display, or knowingly cause to be circulated, distributed, printed, or displayed, or knowingly have in their possession for the purpose of circulation, distribution, publication, or display any written or printed matter, advising, advocating, or teaching opposition to all government, or advising, advocating, or teaching:
    (1) the ovethrow by force or violence of the Government of the United States or of all forms of law, or
    (2) the duty, necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers of the Government of the United States or of any other government, or
    (3) the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property, or
    (4) sabotage;
(e) aliens who are members of, or affiliated with, any organization, association, society, or group, that writes, circulates, distributes, prints, publishes, or displays, or causes to be written, circulated, distributed, printed, published, or displayed, or that has in its possession for the purpose of circulation, distribution, publication, or display, any written or printed matter of the character in subdivision (d).

In short, it prevents the immigration of, and residence of non-citizens who want to overthrow the government. So there is no "special law" against those deported. But the law under which they were deported remained until 1952.

The 1952 act also restricts immigrants who are engaging in "subversive activities", by which is meant activities intended to hurt the US. The deported anarchists might have been deemed to have engaged in this, and may not have been allowed back anyway, even if they were still alive at that point. Similar provisions exist in the 1990 immigration act.

But the law aimed directly at anarchists do not exist any longer.

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