The 12th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1101 to December 31, 1200 in the Gregorian calendar.

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Baldwin IV, the Leper King

Baldwin IV was crowned King of Jerusalem, from 1174 until his death in 1186 at the ripe old age of 24. As a child, his tutor, William of Tyre, discovered he had leprosy. Understanding that he was the ...
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Were there buttons in the Holy Land?

I'm looking at clothing and dress from the period during the crusades and I suspect that buttons might have been something the crusaders took back with them from the Levant. They start popping up in ...
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First-hand sources for medieval urban life in central Europe

I am a teacher and I would like to do an exercise with my students concerning the urban life in the Middle Ages. I am looking for original, first-hand sources who describe urban life from the 11th ...
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In England, how many Jews died during the persecutions of the crusades during 1190-1200?

As is well known Steven Runciman, a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages, definitively clarified what the Holy War had been: "The Holy War itself was nothing more than a long act of ...
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Did Marco Polo really play Weiqi (Go)?

Somebody told me that until the twentieth century Marco Polo was the strongest westerner ever to play go (weiqi). Is this true? I can't find any reference to it. Googling Marco Polo and go doesn't ...
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in what form did William the Conqueror write the date of his own coronation?

This is a question about the English legal calendar as viewed by people living at the time, not as historians recorded it later. New year shifts to 1-January To the best of my understanding, the ...
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What language was the Charter of Liberties written in?

While researching my answer for the What was the official language used across European monarchies in the XII century? question I came upon the Charter of Liberties, or Coronation Charter, issued by ...
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What was the official language used across European monarchies in the XII century?

I have been reading about European history in the XII century and I am finding out that several of the modern day languages hadn't yet evolved to what they are now: Langue d'oïl was still being used ...
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What holidays would be on a European-centric calendar from the 11th - 13th Centuries?

I've often come across readings that mentioned there were numerous holidays in calendars in use within the Christian Churches or Church controlled lands, with work stopping on worship days, feast days ...
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Is there any evidence for dual-wielding in the 12th Century?

To settle an office debate - I was wondering if there was any evidence for any soldier or knight in the 12th Century using two weapons at once - for instance, if a shield was dropped or wasn't ...
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Why were universities created in the 11th-12th century?

I am specifically interested in information related to: the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, and the University of Oxford. From what I have been able to find so far universities were ...
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Was Saladin Agnostic?

In the movie "Kingdom of Heaven", Saladin was portrayed as somewhat agnostic. He has been portrayed this way in literature as well, if I recall correctly. Is there a basis to this?
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Why did Saladin show kindness to Richard I?

Why did Saladin, when Richard the Lionhearted was sick with a fever, send him a gift of fruit? Or when Richard's horse was killed in battle, he sent a steed to be led to his camp?
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Who gave King Richard I the title Coeur de Lion?

When King Richard I went to the Holy land during the Third Crusade, he was given the title coeur de lion (French for lion heart). Who gave him that title? I Imagine that it was a French person.