Ancient history was from the beginning of recorded history (c. 4000 B.C.) until the fall of the Roman Empire (c. A.D. 500).

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Aryan Invasion Theory propaganda or reality? [on hold]

I have recently viewed the video "Dr. P. Priyadarshi at IITK- History of Ancient India over last 1 lakh years" In it, he attempts to disprove the Aryan Invasion Theory, as well as show other ...
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142 views

Pre-Roman structures in Northern Europe [on hold]

Do we have any surviving remnants or written accounts of pre-Roman buildings in Northern Europe?
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83 views

How advanced would the ancient Egyptian empire have been if they were still around..? [closed]

We know they were one of the most advanced civilization in history with their knowledge of mathematics, astronomy, medicine, architecture etc..If their empire still existed, would they have been more ...
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81 views

Is there any sort of list of Roman senators?

I am looking for records on Roman senators (specifically around 100 B.C., around the time Ceasar was born) Googling for it I only find various wikipedia articles on how the Roman senate worked, but no ...
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1answer
157 views

Who are reputable historians who study ancient Greece? [closed]

I was wanting to know reputable historians who specialize in Ancient Greek Civilization? For example, Bettany Hughes is one, but I would like to know some more.
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1answer
131 views

How do I differentiate ancient ceramic from today's junk?

I've been to London's River Thames, a famous place where it is relatively easy to find ceramics and other relics of the past. I found something but I have no idea how to distinguish ancient stuff ...
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4answers
215 views

Purple in Roman History

Recently, I was reading articles of ancient clothing (more specifically Roman and Chinese) and while I was reading there wa countless references that only a Roman Emperor could wear a complete toga of ...
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1answer
152 views

How accurate are ancient history busts?

This question links to a blog article of dubious quality about the life of Nero. One sentence however got me thinking (emphasis mine): Though many historical accounts of Nero describe him as weak ...
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2answers
221 views

Why were North American Native Americans Underdeveloped

During the Pre-Columbian period of the New World the Incas, Aztecs, Mayans, and many more civilizations roamed the land of south North America and all of South America. They were far more advanced and ...
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1answer
116 views

is this a correct ottoman map in year 1803m

I found this map on the internet .. in the comments many people said it might be wrong. 1-The name of the countries are wrong with wrong border. 2-Its too accurate. 3-Its not arabic ...
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425 views

How much contact did Sub-Saharan Africa actually have with the rest of the world since the beginning of civilization?

The book 'Guns, germs and steel' introduced me to the fact that the Sahara desert actually isolated Sub-Saharan Africa from the developments elsewhere since the beginning of civilization until ...
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1answer
253 views

Origin of “The grass did not grow where Attila had passed” [closed]

Legend says that where Attila's horse passed grass did not grow again. For example, a variant of this quote can be found on Biographay.com's entry on the man. What was the first use of this phrase or ...
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2answers
89 views

Which country traces its roots back to the oldest civilization? [Reliable sources only] [closed]

I've searched a lot to find any reliable and trustworthy source of information about this and found this on this very site. My questions is, can we essentially agree that the oldest countries by ...
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51 views

How did physical exercise originate in the Western world?

This is a list of mentions I found with my short googling: The yoga exercise technics were well-known in Asia as a both physical and mental health cure for a long time. According to Wikipedia, ...
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2answers
141 views

Who or what is Glohithia

I listen again and again in Rotting Christ's song The sign of evil existence the chorus "Summon Glohithia, appears in snake shape". I know these guys talks about old folklore, like sumerians or so. ...
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1answer
119 views

On the history of Jewish places of worship

I was recently on holiday in Israel and Jordan on a tour that focussed on biblical and archaeological sites. As part of the tour, we visited Tel Arad which was probably built around 1100 BCE and ...
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2answers
113 views

Did temples in ancient Greece contain treasure? [closed]

Was it common for temples in ancient Greece to contain treasure like gold and silver? Did any famous temples contain treasure rooms?
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1answer
80 views

What was the name of the father of Mesha, king of Moab?

In English translations of the Mesha Stele, the opening words are "I am Mesha son of Chemosh-melekh, king of Moab the Dibonite". However, the truth is that the actual text of the Stele (rendered in ...
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1answer
119 views

Is there any historical evidence to support the existence of the Patriarchs outside of the Old Testament? [duplicate]

What evidence can be provided to support the existence of the patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac and Jacob) outside of the Old Testament?
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2answers
233 views

Why is Matgenus, king of Tyre, sometimes called Mattan?

In Josephus' Against Apion (1:18) he writes in the name of Menander the Ephesian that Matgenus was one of the Tyrian kings, but I have seen other sources (like Wikipedia, et al.) refer to this king as ...
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0answers
82 views

What is the origin of language? [closed]

The use of language is one of the most conspicuous and diagnostic traits that distinguish Homo sapiens from other species. Unlike writing, spoken language leaves no trace.Can we get a direct method in ...
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1answer
178 views

Death by candle [closed]

Many sources state that candles have been heavily used for light and timekeeping starting as early as 3000 BCE. Until electric lighting took over starting in the 19th century, candles and oil lamps ...
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1answer
53 views

When was the Passover Seder ritual formalized?

When were the Passover Seder customs in their present form formalized? As a terminus post quem I think we can surely take 70 CE when the Second Temple was destroyed since parts of the Seder ...
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1answer
209 views

Pre-Christian use of the Greek Septuagint

I'm interested in the pre-Christian use of the Septuagint, as well as the Greek language, within Jewish everyday life in Israel and in the synagogues of Israel. Is there evidence that the LXX or ...
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2answers
180 views

Is it possible to find out on what Roman day of the week Jesus resurrected? [closed]

According to the bible Jesus resurrected at the first day of the week. Nowadays we would call that day Sunday. But the first day of the week is based on the Hebrew calendar. In those days the Jews ...
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31 views

When did they start counting the days from 1 to 31 in Europe? [duplicate]

In history the Romans didn't count their days of a month not by adding each day extra. But instead of that they used three moments in a month, Kalendae, nonae and Idus. And from those days they ...
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1answer
71 views

What was “Taurica”? [closed]

I tend to see the area around Crimea referred to as "Taurica" when did this start and why did it stop? https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Taurica
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63 views

Prior to Christianity, did some or all Greeks commonly believe in Greek mythology as historical fact? [duplicate]

Prior to the spread of Christianity, religion in Greece centered around worship of the Greek pantheon, and Greek mythology included many stories to explain historical fact, such as the founding of ...
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3answers
180 views

Did ancient Egypt gain any significant cultural influence from other states/regions?

Western cultures, to the best of my understanding, can trace their roots back to Ancient Egypt. Many modern day Western cultures took influence from Rome, which in turn took influence from Greece, ...
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3answers
570 views

When did Greek historians stop believing Greek mythology to be historical fact?

In Greek mythology, there are all kinds of historical stories. Fire from Mount Olympus, founding of Thebes, not to mention actions of the gods. First, is it safe to assume that there was a time in ...
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3answers
232 views

What was the first major technological advancement that occurred after the fall of the Roman Empire? [closed]

Popular perception is that technology and science stopped advancing for quite some time after the fall of the Roman Empire. Is this true? Or were significant advances steadily made, just at a slower ...
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1answer
221 views

Are there any known instances of sub-Saharan African democracy before European colonialism?

I've been reading up on pre-Athenian democracy (sometimes referred to as primitive or tribal democracy) where leaders were selected by some or most members of a group and were subject to established ...
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1answer
95 views

Were there established “denominations” for coins of different metals in ancient times? [closed]

Nowadays, the value of a coin doesn't really have any relation to the value of its metal content. However, the earliest metal coins were presumably used because of their inherent value, being made of ...
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258 views

What is the oldest ruler whose remains can be positively identified?

I realize this question can be quite controversial since "positive identification" is rather subjective especially with regards to ancient history. Regardless, I am curious to know which ancient ...
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95 views

Capital Punishment in the Ancient World [closed]

Are there any examples of ancient cultures that did not practice capital punishment? (Prior to the fall of the Roman Empire ~500 AD)
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80 views

Any sources on day to day governance in the ancient world? [closed]

EDIT: I've been asked to make this question simpler so here is my best attempt: I'm looking for sources, either primary, secondary, or even good pieces of historical fiction, that deal with the daily ...
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76 views

Where were Racka sheep brought to Europe from and when?

These are Racka sheep. The Racka is a unique breed with both ewes and rams possessing long spiral shaped horns. This sheep is a bit of a mystery, a mystery whose solving will shed new light on the ...
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773 views

Why did Xerxes need a canal across Mount Athos peninsula?

As a preparation to his invasion of Greece, Xerxes ordered to dig a canal across Mount Athos peninsula. Digging this canal took 3 years. When I look at the map I see that this peninsula is a part of ...
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2answers
251 views

Were there more than 4 River Valley Civilizations? [closed]

If you graduated U.S. Public School education system(k-12), you might have learned about the 4 great River Valley Civilizations: Indus, HuangHe, Nile, Euphrates. They were basically the birthing ...
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62 views

Regulations on women in Vedic India [closed]

I have came across lot of more-religious-less-historic books pertaining to history, which claim that the position of women from the beginning of Vedic civilisation, was ascribed by the scriptures, or '...
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2answers
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Were there any wars in ancient Greece where religion played a major part?

I know that the Greeks had a god of war and many other deities associated with warfare in some respect. I also know that the Greeks would consult the oracles for advice prior to their military ...
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1answer
164 views

What was the first recorded instance of burning a city or village in war?

I'm curious what the first recorded instance of a military putting a city or village to the torch. Certainly, war predates history, as does the tactic of destroying a dwelling, but I'm focused on ...
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1answer
281 views

Was the use of imperial nicknames in ancient Rome meant as an insult?

A few Roman emperors are commonly known by nicknames. I'm thinking specifically of the Emperors Gaius (Caligula) and Antoninus (Caracalla.) These nicknames were never in official use, at least while ...
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26 views

What triggered the movement from the late archaic to the early classical/severe era? [closed]

Most art historians say the movement resulted from the Persian Wars. I've also read that the rejection of Persian ideals and culture triggered the movement into the classical style art. Does anyone ...
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1answer
298 views

Ancient Roman garments apart from the toga

I'll bet there were as many fashion-minded people in Ancient Rome as there are today in London, Milan, New York, and Paris. I know what a toga is. I'm also familiar with what tunics, stolas, and ...
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2answers
77 views

Request for ancient history video lecture references

I just read a page on the Math Stack Exchange linking pages with videos of Math lectures and would love to have a similar thing for History--hopefully that's an acceptable "question" to ask here. ...
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1answer
169 views

Al Khazneh in Petra: is it fake?

The architecture is Greco-Roman, with all the usual attributes. But was it really built in antiquity? It was discovered in the early 19th Century (supposedly), but became a popular tourist destination ...
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1answer
156 views

What is the oldest graphic depiction of Attila?

Wikimedia Commons has two images from the Chronicon Pictum, dated around 1360. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Attila_the_Hun Is there anything (coin, portrait, bust, statue) older than that?
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109 views

Did Ancient Chinese architecture develop anything analogous to the Greek Orders?

Pretty much every culture in the world has its own tradition of architecture, design principles, etc., reflecting what society considers "ideal." In ancient Greece, these famously became codified into ...
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Beads in the Ancient Indus Valley

I’m interested in the manufacture, sales and use of beads in the ancient Indus Valley, particularly during the mature Harappan Civilization. Would beads have been manufactured predominantly by men or ...