0
votes
3answers
257 views

Which country was the first to separate (Christian) Church from state? [closed]

Which country was the first one , in which the Christian Church was separated from the state? I know it must be in Europe, but I don't know which one exactly.
10
votes
1answer
407 views

What do “roses” represent in the history of Protestant vs Catholic conflict?

My history is a little rough, but I am aware that Ireland's past, particularly that of North Ireland, is wrought with conflict. I know there are multiple causes, but that -- whether as cause or excuse ...
7
votes
2answers
473 views

What sort of Cardinals were Richelieu and Mazarin?

Cardinals can belong to one of three orders: Cardinal-deacon Cardinal-bishop Cardinal-priest. What were the ranks of Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin?