Civilizations refers to a means to organize groups of people around common: culture, race, ethnicity, language, religion, national boundaries, etc. The organizing principles are not concrete. Questions about civilizations should be definite in scope, and related to the particular characteristic(s) ...

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Is Sumer considered by historians as a part of Western Civilization? [closed]

Well is it?It seems to me that a continuing cultural thread runs from Mesopotamia passing through Europe and finally arriving in North America.Or Greece and Rome are a breaking point with "Oriental" ...
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1answer
360 views

Is there evidence in Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel that supports his “due not to innate differences in the peoples” conclusion? [closed]

This is an except from the epilogue of Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond. New York London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2005 I would say to Yali: the striking differences between the ...
2
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2answers
305 views

Why weren't Harappan homes built of stones?

I was reading about the Harappan (Indus valley) civilization, their architecture, in my History book when I came across this line: Stones were not used in building houses. Seriously? Why? What ...
9
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6answers
3k views

What factors enabled Europe to conquer almost the whole world?

As we probably all know, after ancient and medieval times European countries traveled to almost every part of the Globe. Today's heritage are, among many others, Roman law and alphabet, Gregorian ...
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4answers
222 views

Was there a single ancient religion that all others sprang from?

Many religions share same stories, Christianity, Judaism and Islam for example (the ones I know of at least). Some of those stories could even be traced to earlier civilizations in the Middle East ...
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2answers
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What is the first known organized religion in the world?

Which were the first religions to be created with well known scriptures, ceremonies and traditions? Was it that of the ancient Egyptians or the old kingdoms of the Middle East? What about Africa or ...
10
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3answers
156 views

Finding reviews of academic books?

I find it quite diffucult to find reviews of academic books on various subjects, especially for books in the english language. In Denmark we have a service where we can search almost any book academic ...
6
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5answers
302 views

Historical examples of significant no man's lands between states in perpetual conflict

What are some historical examples, if any, of large-scale (say > 10000 km squared) "no-man's lands" between states in perpetual conflict? These states would be mutually hostile, firmly divided ...
12
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1answer
488 views

How many hours per day did a Sumerian farmer sleep?

I wonder about the life-styles of the inhabitants of ancient civilizations. As a particular case, if we consider the era of Sumer, what are the significant diversities compared to rural life today?
16
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2answers
296 views

How does Göbekli Tepe fit into the current picture of society development?

Göbekli Tepe is a huge archaeological site in Eastern Turkey, currently under excavation (make sure you click on "Pictures"). It is one of the oldest architectural complexes in the world, possibly the ...
10
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3answers
2k views

How common are major cities not built by abundant water?

When you look at the biggest cities in the world, they all tend to be built on a major body of water, either a coast, a large lake, or a major river. This made sense in ancient times, as abundant ...
5
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2answers
213 views

Is there an Arnold J Toynbee student to say about the state and fate of Western Civilization?

Toynbee studied history centering his work on the life and death of civilizations. As Wikipedia says: Toynbee argued that "Civilizations die from suicide, not by murder." For Toynbee, ...
7
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1answer
107 views

Did all writing civilizations eventually produce cryptography?

I know some of the ancient civilizations did encrypt their messages. Did it happen everywhere where writing was known? If it didn't happen somewhere, what were the reasons?
6
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4answers
252 views

Continent-wide common languages in human history

My question on rpg.stackexchange.com seems to have reached a point where a "history-person" would be quite suitable to answer it. So let me rephrase it, so as to be at least marginally suitable for ...
11
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1answer
380 views

Why did civilisation/city states never take root in Australia and North America?

I recently read that the Australian Aborigines numbered close to a million during the time of Botany Bay and comprised of ~250 tribes/nations. The Native Americans of North America also boasted ...
4
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2answers
250 views

Is there a majority viewpoint for the fall of the ancient Egyptian civilization?

This article on the end of the ancient Egyptian civilization posits four different points at which the civilization ended: Is it the definitive end of native Egyptian rule (at least until the 20th ...
6
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4answers
238 views

Resources on the History of African Civilization

I was wondering if anyone might be aware of any good resources on the history and development of African civilizations? I will of course be seeking council from the Most Wise and Great God Google, ...
6
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1answer
154 views

What is the contemporary knowledge of the theoretical history?

I have noticed, that posts here do not use in their argumentation the terminology and thoughts of the theories that attempted to make history more scientific, tried to put a base under it. I mean ...
6
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1answer
226 views

What are the social preconditions for division of labour, when compared in different emerging civilizations?

I would like to know if historians/economists/sociologists agree on the preconditions required for division of labour in ancient and/or earlier societies. Are there any common preconditions and ...
15
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3answers
2k views

Which country traces its roots back to the oldest civilization?

Which country is recognized or documented as having the first prominent civilization? After reading so many articles, I couldn't determine which country should be acknowledged as having the oldest ...
6
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1answer
197 views

What makes a distinct civilization?

Inspired by this question, I have a more general one: What is, historically speaking, a civilization? We can identify broad traits that make a society a civilization- agriculture, city building, ...