The process of a country repatriating its citizens to a territory under their purvey and asserting political, military and/or economic control over any native inhabitants who may already occupy said territory.

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4
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1answer
35 views

The region of Viceroy Toledo's Reductions (Reducciones)?

I'm trying to find the geographic boundaries for the native resettlement implemented by Toledo, Viceroy of Peru, as a part of his Toledo reforms. This resettlement is distinct from the later Jesuit ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

How common is nostalgia for the colonial perod in countries which gained independence in the 20th century? [closed]

Having spent most of my life in Eastern Europe, I observe that a lot of people have at least some nostalgic feelings toward the era of Soviet occupation. Of course, personal freedom, free speech etc. ...
-4
votes
1answer
61 views

How much of colonialism profit was continued post-colonialism by neo-imperialism/neo-colonialism? [closed]

(Particularly European colonial countries) My understanding of colonialism is that it provided significant wealth/resources in the early industrialization of colonial countries. Does that generally ...
65
votes
6answers
13k views

Why did Native Americans die from European diseases while Europeans didn't catch serious diseases from the New World?

Why did Native Americans die of European diseases while Europeans didn't have serious diseases from the New World? I read that most Native American victims of colonization in the new world died of ...
21
votes
2answers
2k views

Why could China keep most of the lands it conquered after 17th century but European powers could not?

If we look at the map of Ming dynasty, we see a much smaller China. Most of the northern and western part of today's China was conquered during Qing dynasty. In contrast, many European powers have ...
4
votes
1answer
96 views

What happened to the french overseas colonies during the beginning of the french revolution?

While I understand that Paris and then most of France got swept up in revolutionary fervor. What happened in its far flung colonies, such as the Antilles, India, North America, Africa and even ...
2
votes
2answers
255 views

Are former British colonies better off now compared to other colonies and why [duplicate]

After looking up some statistics it appears that former British colonies ( Canada, Australia, India, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Singapore,...) seem to be better of than colonies of let's say ...
0
votes
1answer
181 views

Did Jaques Chirac say “Without Africa, France will slide down into the rank of a third [world] power”?

This article claims that Jaques Chirac stated in March 2008: “Without Africa, France will slide down into the rank of a third [world] power” This is significant because it implies France is ...
0
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1answer
331 views

Why were the Thirteen Colonies more successful, both economically and socially, than other colonies? [closed]

The Thirteen Colonies had an incredibly rocky start, running out of food and surrounded by Indian tribes which were not pacified until much later. Yet 200 years later, the population in the colonies ...
10
votes
1answer
145 views

Who owned Franz Josef islands between 1918-1926?

Franz Josef land was discovered and claimed by Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1873. Previously Norway discovered it, but they never reported the discovery. The Austro-Hungarian Empire dissoluted in ...
5
votes
1answer
101 views

Did Canada or Mexico have an equivalent of Manifest Destiny at some stage in their development?

The term Manifest Destiny is defined as an outlook of the United States. However, the other two major nations on the North American continent also grew from port settlements and trading posts; so I ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

How did Europeans really conquer the Americas? [closed]

In school we (US centric students) were taught that the european settlers won over the Native Americans due to our superior technology (aka guns) and the native american's susceptibility to our ...
3
votes
1answer
148 views

How did native Americans and European colonists conduct their trades?

I'm curious to know how Natives Americans and Europeans colonists traded during the colonization of north-east America. what kind of currencies (if any) were used? Or did they barter?
-5
votes
1answer
111 views

Imperialism in africa/asia [closed]

Why was Asia colonized less than Africa? Is there a specific reason for this? And which Asian nation was not not fully colonized? Thank you; I was just wondering.
4
votes
2answers
1k views

How many Britons lived in India during the British Raj (1858 - 1947)?

How many Britons lived (not just visited shortly) in India during the British Raj (1858 - 1947)? There might be two answers, both of them interesting: The amount of Britons in India over time - ...
8
votes
1answer
776 views

Did Japan have any continental colonies before modern times?

Imperial Japan built up an impressive collection of colonies on the Asian mainland due to their uncontested navy and comparatively modern army. Did Japan ever hold any colonies on the mainland before ...
0
votes
1answer
3k views

When did Sri Lanka and Myanmar separate from India? [closed]

Sri Lanka and Myanmar were a part of British India. Sri Lanka is culturally similar to India. Then why did these countries separate?
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Why did East India Company accept Government of India Act 1858?

In 1858, British parliament passed Government of India Act which contained provisions of liquidation of the company and transference of assets, governance to British crown. The act was going to kill ...
7
votes
1answer
170 views

The popularity of coffee

What gave rise to the widespread popularity of coffee? For example, was it a marketing effort by countries with colonies that were suitable for growing coffee? Were there supposed health benefits that ...
0
votes
1answer
5k views

What does Spivak mean by “epistemic violence” in her paper “can the subaltern speak”? [closed]

What does G. Spivak mean by epistemic violence in her essay "Can the subaltern speak"? Does she mean that intellectuals in Europe and first world countries are prolonging and fixing the ...
3
votes
2answers
463 views

Spain's tributary empire vs. Portugal's seaborne empire

While the Spanish built a huge colonial empire in the Americas, why didn't Portugal colonize the South Asian coast and only aimed at controlling trade? Why did these empires pursue such different ...
7
votes
6answers
294 views

Has there been other settlements in occupied territories in recent history?

The issue of Israeli settlements in the West Bank (and other territories) is quite controversial, including its legality and its impact on the peace process. I'm wondering if there was any similar ...
2
votes
3answers
2k views

Why did Germany not colonise much? [closed]

Why did Germany not become a major colonizer?
3
votes
2answers
251 views

How were the modern countries in South America formed?

I do not know much about South America which is why I am here. Since most were colonies, mixtures of many races and cultures and nearly all spoke the same language, how did it end up with so many ...
7
votes
3answers
786 views

How did the Dutch East India Company (VOC) have so much revenue when they only control small part of Indonesia?

According to this, the VOC only controlled some ports, cities (like Batavia/Jakarta) and its surrounding. Yet, it seems to be a very successful corporation, mostly benefiting from the natural ...
1
vote
0answers
107 views

Where there any major battles between Australian Aborigines and English Colonists? [closed]

The English were hostile to most of the natives near their colonies. However, I can't seem to find any evidence as to whether or not the Aborigines partook in any battle against British colonists in ...
7
votes
1answer
331 views

Did France actually intend to colonise West Australia and were any resources assigned to this objective prior to 1829?

The Wikipedia article about the History of Western Australia mentions that the British set up a military garrison at King George Sound in 1826 and established a colony on the Swan River in 1829 in ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

Why didn't Zheng He colonize the countries he explored like what the Europeans did to the New World? [closed]

Hundreds of years ago, China was more advanced than Europe and even the Ottomans. Why didn't China become a colonial master? Ming Dynasty Zheng He went on huge shipping expeditions and could have ...
17
votes
1answer
391 views

Colonisation of India: Which regions of the United Kingdom did colonial personnel come from?

I'm a linguist doing research on the emergence of new dialects of English spoken in former colonies, especially India. These new dialects have two major influences: (1) Interference from the mother ...
7
votes
1answer
236 views

How many Dutch lived in Indonesia during the colonial era vs native population?

In Indonesian education, it is often emphasized that the Dutch took advantage of "divide and conquer" tactics (and superior technology) to keep ruling Indonesia (then the Dutch East Indies) despite ...
9
votes
1answer
150 views

How were British personnel employed in the colonies after independence

A lot of colonies continued to employ British citizens in their government even after attaining independence. But how were these employees paid (in local currency, or in pounds)? Was it not considered ...
11
votes
7answers
1k views

Is there a correlation between the colonial power and the stability/success of the post colonial state?

Looking at the history of Ghana relative to many post-colonial African states, it appears to be quite a successful and stable nation-state, both politically and economically, compared to many other ...
4
votes
3answers
542 views

Did Great Britain benefit economically from the loss of America?

I have been told by many acquaintances that the loss of the thirteen colonies actually BENEFITED the UK. Their claim is that the UK no longer had to pay for the colonies' defence and administration ...
14
votes
1answer
940 views

Why has Hainan been so little fought over?

There are two really substantial islands off the coast of China, namely Taiwan (Formosa) and Hainan. Whereas Taiwan has been occupied, colonised, renamed and fought over for the last 600 years, Hainan ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Why did the attempts to keep Africa colonized after World War II fail?

After World War II, though the Attlee-led British government decided to give freedom to India, they held on to much of Africa. But why did this attempt at colonization fail? Wikipedia explains that ...
10
votes
2answers
231 views

Why did the Spanish take the island of Annobon in the Treaty of El Pardo in 1778?

The conditions of the treaty of El Pardo, signed in 1778, have always been a mistery to me. Quoting Wikipedia: The Treaty of El Pardo was signed on March 11, 1778 between Queen Maria I of ...
9
votes
4answers
4k views

In the British empire, what was the difference between a Governor General and a Viceroy?

In the many colonies of the British empire, it seems that the rulers of some were known as Governors General and others were officially titled as Viceroys. Was there a practical distinction between ...
15
votes
1answer
420 views

Why didn't Japan expand into Ezo?

Throughout the first millenium of Japanese history (and before that even) the Japanese rather steadily expanded up Honshu. Once they had taken the whole of Honshu however they seemed largely to stop. ...
14
votes
5answers
14k views

Why was China not colonized by any country?

Why didn't China become a colony of anybody, unlike most other Asian countries?
3
votes
3answers
555 views

The economic prosperity of former colonies and their demographic make up

Most former colonies are now developing or poor countries, such as many countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Some exceptions are Australia, the United States, Canada. Interestingly they are ...
12
votes
2answers
520 views

Role of Indian princes and aristocratic landowners under British colonial rule?

I am currently reading Ludwig von Mises' Human Action and find it rewarding in various ways. For instance, von Mises points out the following about volunteers' roles even around autocratic rulers: ...
3
votes
2answers
622 views

Was India's independence inevitable after Cripps Mission?

In 1942, the British government had sent Sir Stafford Cripps to negotiate with the Congress. According to most sources (though this was not made public at that time), the Cripps Mission had proposed ...
5
votes
3answers
454 views

Writing systems in South America?

Which cultures in South America had writing systems before the arrival of the Europeans? I may be a little misinformed, but unlike Meso America there were not many cultures in SA that relied on some ...
11
votes
5answers
2k views

Why did France put so many resources into fighting Algeria in comparison to its other former colonial holdings?

Why did France put so many resources into fighting Algeria in comparison to its other former colonial holdings? Was there anything unique about the French-Algerian relationship. On Wikipedia it says ...
18
votes
7answers
2k views

Why did Austronesian/Polynesian people not colonize Australia?

Australia hosted aboriginal populations since prehistory. However technologically advanced civilizations (in comparison) lived nearby, in Indonesia, Polynesia and New Guinea. Why was it not colonized ...
10
votes
5answers
765 views

Were the (early 17th C) arrivers/colonists to North America (USA) outcasts from European societies?

I have heard that early pilgrims for 'the new world' (North America / USA) left because they were indigent and had no support in their homelands. I have also heard that some were criminals or ...
23
votes
7answers
31k views

What were the main causes of successful take over of India by Britain?

The East India Company ruled an entire country of huge size for 101 years (1757–1858). During this time they did almost everything they wanted to do and won almost every battle in India. What was ...
8
votes
2answers
234 views

Why is the Ping Yuen river in Hong Kong called River Ganges?

Why is the Ping Yuen river in Hong Kong called River Ganges? From the wikipedia: Ping Yuen River (also known as River Ganges) (平原河) is a river in northern New Territories, Hong Kong. Its source ...
4
votes
1answer
102 views

Fanons 'Concerning Violence' makes the point that Nazism was the culminating point of the project of European Colonialism, how true is that?

He writes 'Not long ago Nazism transformed the whole of Europe into a veritable colony', meaning that the techniques pioneered in the colonies of Europe were turned upon Europe itself, culminating in ...
10
votes
1answer
324 views

Did any Ethiopian leaders help the Italians?

Around the two Italo-Ethiopian wars, did any Ethiopian leaders side with the Italians? By "around", I mean anywhere from about 1890 to 1936. By "leaders", I mean noblemen, military officers, popular ...