The process of a country repatriating its citizens to a territory under their purvey and asserting political, military and/or economic control over any native inhabitants who may already occupy said territory.

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4answers
2k views

How did former Spanish colonies in the Americas become so fragmented?

If we only consider countries that are connected by land, there are 16 Spanish speaking countries in the Americas, totaling 11,301,072 km2 in area. That's only slightly larger than Canada (9,984,670 ...
20
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4answers
3k views

Why did East India Company accept Government of India Act 1858?

In 1858, British parliament passed Government of India Act which contained provisions of liquidation of the company and transference of assets, governance to British crown. The act was going to kill ...
16
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6answers
22k views

Why was China not colonized by any country?

Why didn't China become a colony of anybody, unlike most other Asian countries?
1
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2answers
76 views

What happened to the other European residents in Khartoum in 1885?

Some sources mention Gordon running into the Austrian consulate to save himself from the Mahdi, which implies that there were other Europeans in Khartoum during the siege. What happened to them?
10
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2answers
1k views

Did Japan have any continental colonies before modern times?

Imperial Japan built up an impressive collection of colonies on the Asian mainland due to their uncontested navy and comparatively modern army. Did Japan ever hold any colonies on the mainland before ...
16
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3answers
7k views

Economic effects of the Cuban Revolution

What were the economic effects of the Cuban Revolution? Were living conditions improved for the average Cuban? I'm looking for objective criteria like average income, wealth distribution, life ...
2
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1answer
113 views

Why do Afro Carribeans have English names whereas Indo Carribeans still have Indian(ish) names

Why don't Afro Carribeans have African names or Indo Carribeans have English names? Did colonizers find it difficult to pronounce African names but not Indian names? Further to this question, if this ...
48
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9answers
11k views

Why was Africa colonized last of the continents in the Age of Discovery?

One thing that I always wondered is during the time where European powers were dividing up the world amongst themselves (1500-1900 roughly), why was it that Africa seemed to lag behind in colonization,...
3
votes
1answer
142 views

Who is speaking here?

Our English teacher gave us an exercise to do: We got different texts what people could have said and our task now is to find out: Who said it and when? Our current topic is "The early years of the ...
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2answers
261 views

European colonization of India: contrast with America

The European colonization of Americas was a bloody conquest leading to significant destruction of the native population (and their cultures). Aside from the fact that a lot of natives inadvertently ...
7
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2answers
6k views

How many Britons lived in India during the British Raj (1858 - 1947)?

How many Britons lived (not just visited shortly) in India during the British Raj (1858 - 1947)? There might be two answers, both of them interesting: The amount of Britons in India over time - ...
1
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1answer
61 views

Mali - French colonial rule

So I'm researching the time of the french colonial rule in Mali at the moment. But there are some thing I don't understand, especially the part where the Mali region gets "added"(?) to french-sudan. ...
-2
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1answer
151 views

How did Britain rule Sri Lanka? [closed]

How did Britain rule Sri Lanka. Apart from the Great Rebellion, in which the British Empire brutally repressed the Kandy kingdom, there isn't a lot of info on how life was really like under foreign ...
8
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2answers
1k views

How long would it take to travel from England to western Africa in the late 1890's?

I am trying to do some research for a book I am planning to write, and I would like to know how long it would take for a troop transport ship to travel from England to the Gold Coast region of Africa. ...
9
votes
1answer
484 views

Why were Morocco and Tunisia made a French protectorate, but Algeria annexed as part of France?

This question is somewhat related to this one. The three maghreban countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia are almost like three sisters and share everything in common culturally and historically. ...
57
votes
5answers
3k views

How accurate or supported is Jared Diamond's “Guns, Germs, and Steel”?

Jared Diamond wrote a fascinating book that purports to explain, in a very broad way, the development of civilization. It has several explanations for the development of Eurasian civilization rather ...
8
votes
1answer
276 views

Why did United Kingdom not keep the colonies after Napoleon's defeat?

During the Napoleonic Wars the British occupied some French, Dutch and Danish colonies mainly in the Caribbean like: Dutch Surinam, Danish West Indies, French Martinique. I have 2 questions: Why ...
5
votes
3answers
4k views

Why did Germany not colonise much? [closed]

Why did Germany not become a major colonizer of overseas countries, like England and France, and even Belgium?
13
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7answers
2k views

Even though Spain and Portugal had many colonies (15th/16th C), what factors permitted UK/France to become world powers later (18th/19th C)?

Some of the first European countries to acquire colonies in the "New World" (and elsewhere) were Spain and Portugal. They "discovered America" (as the euro-centric interpretation goes), and had ...
12
votes
5answers
608 views

What did other European powers say when Portugal and Spain signed the Treaty of Tordesillas?

In 1494, Portugal and Castile (succeeded by Spain) divided all lands outside Europe, including the newly "on-discovering" Americas, between them signing the Treaty of Tordesillas. What were the ...
5
votes
0answers
105 views

How did the Belgians issue ID cards with ethnicity to women in Ruanda-Urundi?

I've read about how the Belgians issued ID cards to the inhabitants of their colony Ruanda-Urundi (later independent under the names of Rwanda and Burundi): Indeed, the Belgian colonists ...
4
votes
1answer
283 views

Were the Islamic Caliphates (Umayyad and Abbasid) and the Mongol Empires truly as benevolent as they are portrayed?

My history textbooks insist on the same idea: these empires were religiously tolerant, allowed trade to flourish, and improved the quality of life for the subjects. On the other hand, all the ...
5
votes
0answers
204 views

How much tax revenue did the British Empire receive from its colonies in a given year?

I have heard that India at least was quite profitable for the United Kingdom. However, I do not know of any exact numbers for the annual tax revenue of the colonies in any given year. This book on the ...
1
vote
0answers
156 views

How do we compare historical empires on these statistics?

I see three criteria here: I'm wondering which historical empire was the most long lived, largest, most populous, and represented the largest percentage of world population. Who controlled the ...
1
vote
1answer
13k views

Why were Sri Lanka and Myanmar separated from India under the British Empire? [closed]

Historically, the British integrated their holdings in India into the British Raj. Sri Lanka and Myanmar were also part of the British Empire in India. Sri Lanka is moreover culturally similar to ...
5
votes
1answer
233 views

Why did the Portuguese colonies stay united whereas the Spanish ones split up? [duplicate]

Why did the South-American Portuguese colonies unite into one country, Brazil, whereas the South-American Spanish colonies split into many different countries, i.e. Argentina, Peru, Chile, etc?
8
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1answer
1k views

Did Britain send convicts to Canada during the colonial era?

During the colonial era before the American War of Independence, Britain sent convicts to its North American colonies which eventually became the USA, but did Britain also send convicts to those ...
8
votes
3answers
572 views

Why was Lithuania not colonized by Soviet Union?

During the Soviet occupation of Baltic States, Estonia and Latvia saw their countries settled by Russians who eventually made up more than 30% of their populations. However percentage of Russians in ...
25
votes
3answers
3k views

Why could China keep most of the lands it conquered after 17th century but European powers could not?

If we look at the map of Ming dynasty, we see a much smaller China. Most of the northern and western part of today's China was conquered during Qing dynasty. In contrast, many European powers have ...
24
votes
8answers
57k views

What were the main causes of successful take over of India by Britain?

The East India Company ruled an entire country of huge size for 101 years (1757–1858). During this time they did almost everything they wanted to do and won almost every battle in India. What was ...
10
votes
2answers
222 views

Colonies in Machiavelli's age

In Chapter 3 of the Prince Machiavelli offers this advice to the prince who would hold a newly acquired territory: [T]o send colonies to one or two places, which may be as keys to that state, ...
4
votes
1answer
55 views

The region of Viceroy Toledo's Reductions (Reducciones)?

I'm trying to find the geographic boundaries for the native resettlement implemented by Toledo, Viceroy of Peru, as a part of his Toledo reforms. This resettlement is distinct from the later Jesuit ...
22
votes
3answers
8k views

What were the reasons that the British colonies in North America rebelled but not others?

I know more about the American War of Independence than about other British colonies, but I have begun to wonder why was it just America. The British had colonies in other places but there doesn't ...
2
votes
1answer
157 views

How common is nostalgia for the colonial perod in countries which gained independence in the 20th century? [closed]

Having spent most of my life in Eastern Europe, I observe that a lot of people have at least some nostalgic feelings toward the era of Soviet occupation. Of course, personal freedom, free speech etc. ...
-4
votes
1answer
124 views

How much of colonialism profit was continued post-colonialism by neo-imperialism/neo-colonialism? [closed]

(Particularly European colonial countries) My understanding of colonialism is that it provided significant wealth/resources in the early industrialization of colonial countries. Does that generally ...
18
votes
5answers
4k views

Why did the Dutch, French & British acquire minor colonies in South America?

We know that South America was partitioned between Spain and Portugal in the early days of empire when Spain and Portugal were the major powers. Later, in the 19th century, when Spain and Portugal ...
11
votes
7answers
3k views

Is there a correlation between the colonial power and the stability/success of the post colonial state?

Looking at the history of Ghana relative to many post-colonial African states, it appears to be quite a successful and stable nation-state, both politically and economically, compared to many other ...
15
votes
1answer
490 views

Why didn't Japan expand into Ezo?

Throughout the first millenium of Japanese history (and before that even) the Japanese rather steadily expanded up Honshu. Once they had taken the whole of Honshu however they seemed largely to stop. ...
9
votes
3answers
10k views

In the British empire, what was the difference between a Governor General and a Viceroy?

In the many colonies of the British empire, it seems that the rulers of some were known as Governors General and others were officially titled as Viceroys. Was there a practical distinction between ...
70
votes
6answers
18k views

Why did Native Americans die from European diseases while Europeans didn't catch serious diseases from the New World?

Why did Native Americans die of European diseases while Europeans didn't have serious diseases from the New World? I read that most Native American victims of colonization in the new world died of ...
4
votes
1answer
325 views

What happened to the french overseas colonies during the beginning of the french revolution?

While I understand that Paris and then most of France got swept up in revolutionary fervor. What happened in its far flung colonies, such as the Antilles, India, North America, Africa and even ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Are former British colonies better off now compared to other colonies and why [duplicate]

After looking up some statistics it appears that former British colonies ( Canada, Australia, India, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Singapore,...) seem to be better of than colonies of let's say ...
-1
votes
1answer
563 views

Did Jaques Chirac say “Without Africa, France will slide down into the rank of a third [world] power”?

This article claims that Jaques Chirac stated in March 2008: “Without Africa, France will slide down into the rank of a third [world] power” This is significant because it implies France is ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Why were the Thirteen Colonies more successful, both economically and socially, than other colonies? [closed]

The Thirteen Colonies had an incredibly rocky start, running out of food and surrounded by Indian tribes which were not pacified until much later. Yet 200 years later, the population in the colonies ...
11
votes
1answer
198 views

Who owned Franz Josef islands between 1918-1926?

Franz Josef land was discovered and claimed by Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1873. Previously Norway discovered it, but they never reported the discovery. The Austro-Hungarian Empire dissoluted in ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

How did the Dutch East India Company (VOC) have so much revenue when they only control small part of Indonesia?

According to this, the VOC only controlled some ports, cities (like Batavia/Jakarta) and its surrounding. Yet, it seems to be a very successful corporation, mostly benefiting from the natural ...
5
votes
1answer
145 views

Did Canada or Mexico have an equivalent of Manifest Destiny at some stage in their development?

The term Manifest Destiny is defined as an outlook of the United States. However, the other two major nations on the North American continent also grew from port settlements and trading posts; so I ...
5
votes
2answers
8k views

How did Europeans really conquer the Americas? [closed]

In school we (US centric students) were taught that the european settlers won over the Native Americans due to our superior technology (aka guns) and the native american's susceptibility to our ...
3
votes
1answer
268 views

How did native Americans and European colonists conduct their trades?

I'm curious to know how Natives Americans and Europeans colonists traded during the colonization of north-east America. what kind of currencies (if any) were used? Or did they barter?
10
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5answers
2k views

Were the (early 17th C) arrivers/colonists to North America (USA) outcasts from European societies?

I have heard that early pilgrims for 'the new world' (North America / USA) left because they were indigent and had no support in their homelands. I have also heard that some were criminals or ...