It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

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What were the reasons for the Renaissance / scientific revolution in Europe?

One of the common reasons given for the Renaissance and the subsequent scientific revolution is the rediscovery of classical works by scholars in Europe and the social change that the study of those ...
8
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9answers
1k views

Why were people from the Asian Steppes able to militarily dominate Europeans on a repeated basis?

From the Huns through the Mongolians, why were nomadic people from the east able to create such havoc in Europe? Was it an endless 'first mover' advantage with horse domestication? Was it a higher ...
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2answers
147 views

How did Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor come to control part of Spain? [closed]

My history book is cited below. My book says that when Charles V abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor, he gave control of his territories in Spain to his son, Philip II. However, what territories did ...
3
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3answers
727 views

Why was spice trade so profitable in the 15th century? [closed]

During the 16th century, Portuguese captured Melaka to dominate the lucrative spice trade; other city states such as Aceh, Banten, Brunei and Pegu also sprung up by exporting and trading spices. ...
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2answers
340 views

Why did Renaissance come first only in the Europe? [duplicate]

When we read about the history of Scientific Revolution during the Enlightenment, we come to know that the roots of Scientific Revolution first started in Europe during the Renaissance. But can you ...
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3answers
206 views

Europe as a political unit

When was the concept of Europe as a singular political unit conceived? When did people start to think of themselves as sharing a similar European culture and calling themselves European? For this ...
7
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2answers
173 views

Are there any remaining existant texts that describe the styles and techniques of Medieval European swordsmanship?

We have, in the modern day, no shortage of movies which feature characters from the Medieval period of European history engaged in combat, with swords, cavalry, and arrows. Do we have any historical ...
5
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1answer
140 views

Pre-1950s views of West European Socialist parties on the welfare state

The eminent Robert Paxton writes in a recent article, somewhat in passing: Continental European Marxists opposed piecemeal welfare measures as likely to dilute worker militancy without changing ...
4
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4answers
636 views

What was the fate of most SS members after World War II?

What happened to most of the members of the SS after the war? Were they punished?
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2answers
687 views

Did any major European country stay neutral during the Napoleonic Wars?

During World Wars I and II, many countries managed to stay neutral, like Spain and Switzerland. Was there any major country (e.g. not a city-state or a micronation) that did the same during the ...
10
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1answer
207 views

Was Swedish king Charles X Gustav's horse killed during Siege of Kraków (1655)?

My question is related to Siege of Kraków, which took place in 1655, between 25th of September and 13th of October, during Second Northern War, which is usually referred to as "Swedish Deluge" in ...
8
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3answers
1k views

Could a nobleman's land be enclosed within another noble's land?

In medieval (in the broadest sense, I'm not thinking of a specific decade) Europe, lands were split up amongst noblemen, and these noblemen had a hierarchy. Barons are lesser than earls which are ...
3
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1answer
170 views

Why are some Americans more religious than European counterparts? [closed]

What are some of the historical reasons for why certain Americans are more religious than similar Europeans? For example, there are pronounced differences in Church attendance; Extent of belief in ...
1
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3answers
491 views

What were the main reasons that the Industrial Revolution happened in Great Britain? [duplicate]

What were the main reasons that the Industrial Revolution happened in Great Britain? I know there were at least a few other European countries with some of the same advantages that Great Britain had ...
29
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3answers
8k views

Why the Romans were unable to conquer Germania?

Emperor Augustus ordered his army to subdue the Germanic tribes in what is modern Germany. This was promptly achieved and by 6 AD the Romans controlled Germany up to the river Elba. The Romans were ...
8
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2answers
1k views

Light cavalry in medieval western Europe?

What sorts of light cavalry were there in high (1300s) medieval western Europe (England and France)? I mean more like non ranged troops. I know that all soldiers likely owned a horse for transport, ...
7
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3answers
576 views

Which country ruled Flanders in the 16th century?

I am reading a novel, The Forty-Five Guardsmen written by Alexandre Dumas; it described a story happening after 1572 in which the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre took place. It mentioned a region ...
52
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12answers
4k views

Why China was able to unify and not Europe

If you look at a map of China through the ages, you will usually find (from about the Han up) a huge mass representing China. On the other hand, you look at a map of Europe, and you'll usually see a ...
5
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2answers
293 views

Jewish ghettos before Nazi Germany

I'm trying to compare the treatment of Jews in Europe before the rise of the Nazis with their treatment under the Nazis (before the concentration camps). Did Jewish communities feel that their ...
8
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2answers
937 views

What percentage of Jews were in “finance” (money-lenders) throughout Middle Ages?

The stereotypical image of a Jew in Middle Ages (and the portrayal of them) was of course "the money-lender". From Ivanhoe's Isaac of York, to Shakespeare's Shylock, to "Проклятый жид, почтенный ...
4
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2answers
196 views

What is the Holy Roman Empire? [closed]

What is the Holy Roman Empire? I have a little background knowledge and I read a little bit on Wikipedia, but I'm still not exactly sure what it is. I know that the states under the "Empire" were ...
9
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3answers
330 views

Why was there no concerted effort to end the Barbary pirate raids until the 1800's?

Barbary pirate raids on the Mediterranean coast led to widespread depopulation of the coasts from Venice to Malaga with the obvious exception of the larger cities. The pirate raids also seem to be the ...
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1answer
133 views

What are some of the influences of the Black Plague and its aftermath on the period of Renaissance? [closed]

The period of Renaissance in Europe kicked off after the Black Plague started disappearing. How did the the plague help in igniting the fire of rebirth?
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2answers
2k views

How much faster were the printing presses than hand writing?

How many times faster were the printing presses, which gave Europe an advantage over other continents in term of access to knowledge, compared to copying of books by hand?
8
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1answer
180 views

What was the need to call the Estates-General of 1789

I read that in France at the time of the French revolution, the monarch did not have the power to impose taxes on his will alone. Rather he had to call a meeting of the Estates General which would ...
3
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3answers
262 views

How was the first official geographical border established in Europe?

In this moment of history, geographic state borders are defined in official treaties between countries. These treaties determine where the territory of certain state ends and where the territory of ...
12
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1answer
254 views

How were the borders of small European principalities maintained or secured?

With shifting boundaries, enclaves, exclaves, and alliances, how were the territorial extents of small principalities or duchies maintained, for example in the Holy Roman Empire or German ...
2
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1answer
120 views

How and when did Jews get to the shores of the Baltic?

How and when did Jews get to the shores of the Baltic?
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1answer
225 views

Did the Hanseatic league have any involvement with Jews?

Did the Hanseatic League have any policy toward or involvement with Jews?
6
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1answer
262 views

What was the attitude of the other European countries in the 1970s Cod War?

In the 1970s Britain and Iceland came close to a shooting war in the so called Cod War. Using these stats (admittedly from some decades later) as a guide, Norway, Denmark and Spain also have ...
2
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1answer
146 views

What sort of architecture existed in Catholic Eastern Europe around the late 1100's and very early 1200's?

What I'm really interested in most is building materials, but I'm pretty open to answers. Essentially, it sounds like the late 1100's in Eastern Europe were still pretty solidly Romanesque, with ...
12
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2answers
458 views

Early medieval urban development

Does anybody know of research papers or academic resources that study the full development and growth of medieval cities? I mean, from village stage to city stage. Or maybe cities did not develop that ...
17
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5answers
1k views

How long did it take for a diplomat to travel between Berlin and Vienna in the 1770's?

I was reading the Wikipedia entry for the War of the Bavarian Succession, and it said (my emphasis): For some historians, the War of the Bavarian Succession was the last of the old-style Cabinet ...
6
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3answers
692 views

How “religious” was the average person in the Middle Ages?

During Europe in the Middle Ages, how religious was the "average Joe"? Looking at the large scale politics of the time it seems religion was a major part of the elites' lives, with treaties with the ...
20
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2answers
4k views

How did Europeans first acquire gunpowder?

I know that gunpowder was first invented in China around the 10th century, and it seems that gunpowder likely made its way to Europe via the "Silk Road." However, there doesn't seem to be a ton of ...
3
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0answers
134 views

How many tons of diamonds did European colonies take from Africa? [closed]

Last night I watched a movie & it said a London Diamond Company in 60s had more than 3 tons of diamonds. Are those all from Africa? What is the total amount of diamonds that Europeans took from ...
6
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3answers
4k views

(War Guilt Methodology) Was Germany solely to blame for WWI?

Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles places the blame of the war solely on Germany and her allies. This is the quote: The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the ...
3
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2answers
544 views

When were the 'last' pagans in northern Europe converted to christianity? [closed]

I've always found it interesting that the Reformation 'began' in Norther Europe. It strikes me that most of the various Christian sects seemed to form within different ethnic groups. So, I'm ...
4
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1answer
49 views

What was the goal of Nicolas de Larmessin etched pictures of artisans?

Nicolas de Larmessin created etched pictures of many different artisans and skilled laborers. Does anyone know what the goal of this artwork was? They are very interesting and detailed images, but I ...
11
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3answers
992 views

Why were there “hussars” all across Europe?

From what I read, hussars are originally a cavalry forces in Medieval Hungary. But then it became a class of light cavalry that were in service in many European nations, and during the Napoleonic ...
6
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3answers
898 views

Have there been any efforts by the countries of Europe to restore their monarchies?

Have there been any effort, polls, referendum in Europe (especially Eastern ex-communist countries) to restore deposed monarchies, like in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, etc.? Most Monarchies were deposed ...
9
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2answers
649 views

Writing month with roman numbers

I got an old wall clock. I'm not at all a clock expert and I would like to know more about its real age. It has a date engraved in its wood: 18/III 07. I assume that this is finishing-date and 18 is ...
5
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2answers
176 views

When, where and with what propagation through Europe did the idea of gypsies stealing children occur?

In light of the recent news kerfuffle regarding a child found in a Romani (gypsy) camp; it got me wondering: At what point in history did the idea1 of gypsies stealing children start? And from ...
8
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2answers
425 views

What are the scholarly opinions on the idea of the “European Civil War”?

On Wikipedia, I ran into an article talking about World War I to World War II and some of the adjacent wars before WWI as being a "European Civil War" or a "Second Thirty Years War". What is the ...
3
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2answers
95 views

Is this conversation factual?

In this article "Does Putin really need Nobel Peace Prize", it is claimed that the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Martti Ahtisaari had the following conversation with Serbian president Miloshevich during ...
2
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3answers
2k views

Decline of the Spanish empire?

What caused the gradual decline of the Spanish colonial empire in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? A post I read claimed that the Spanish overestimated their wealth, and my teacher pointed ...
6
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2answers
311 views

Why did pastorial people from central Asia migrate to Europe?

Alans, Huns, Magyars, Mongols. They were all pastoralists whose material culture and economic life seems more suited to the Asian steppes. Yet for some reason they migrated into the European land ...
3
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2answers
255 views

Diminishing powers of the Roman Catholic church in international matters

Before Enlightenment and Renaissance, Church or Pope had some powers which were almost same as what international organization may have. for example: After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, ...
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3answers
474 views

Based on historical experience what would happen if/when the USA/EU fell? [closed]

In this video the guy talking mentions that when empires fall. Governance tends to become more local and smallscale(warlords, feudal lords etc) because threats tend to become smallscale and local. And ...
3
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1answer
199 views

What might be the “Blue Storm Republic” mentioned by a Chinese history of Europe?

Today, when I read a book about the history of Europe ,when it comes to the European Union, it described as the following words "Main governing bodies of EU include:The Council of the European ...