It is the second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia.

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How long would the average sword last in the middle ages?

Assuming normal wear and tear, how long before a knight had to replace his sword?
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Have there been any efforts by the countries of Europe to restore their monarchies?

Have there been any effort, polls, referendum in Europe (especially Eastern ex-communist countries) to restore deposed monarchies, like in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, etc.? Most Monarchies were deposed ...
17
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16answers
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Why does Europe have so few skyscrapers compared to East Asia?

The European Union has virtually no skyscrapers except the newly built 'The Shard' in London. There are also a series of newly-built state-funded skyscrapers in Moscow. On the other hand if you look ...
6
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2answers
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New theory on origins of modern-day Romania?

I watched a documentary which basically claims that modern-day Romanians are not the descendants of Rome, but that the Romans and the Romanians share a common ancestor with the same language. One of ...
9
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1answer
355 views

Who was Balavignus?

I was reading up on some history on the Black Death and came across the name "Balavignus". He was a Jewish doctor who urged people to apply hygienic measures, based on some biblical verses in ...
5
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4answers
774 views

Is there a relationship between Portugal and Spain being able to discover the New World and the Moor occupation?

Some people believe that the Renaissance actually happened in Toledo, Spain. To me that seems plausible. The knowledge and culture brought by the Moor seems a much better catalyzer to escape the dark ...
6
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1answer
186 views

What did they call Gothic and Baroque architecture before the modern terms came into use?

In the modern sense, I mean. All the reference sites explain the origin of the word Baroque and mention that up until the late 19th Century it was a derogatory term: It was only with Heinrich ...
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11answers
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Why were people from the Asian Steppes able to militarily dominate Europeans on a repeated basis?

From the Huns through the Mongolians, why were nomadic people from the east able to create such havoc in Europe? Was it an endless 'first mover' advantage with horse domestication? Was it a higher ...
4
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0answers
165 views

German - Yugoslav partisan negotiations 1943 and Churchill? [closed]

Negotiations between Tito's partisans and Germans in 1943 are well known. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German%E2%80%93Yugoslav_Partisan_negotiations "Đilas and Velebit were passed through the ...
4
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1answer
575 views

Why are most monarchies in Europe of German descent?

When we look at existing monarchies in Europe, following are of German descent: Royal Family of Belgium Royal Family of United Kingdom Royal Family of Denmark Royal Family of Liechtenstein Royal ...
8
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2answers
545 views

Jean III de Grailly, captal de Buch's strange title

The title of Jean III de Grailly, Captal de Buch, seems odd to me. It was acquired by his father Jean II de Grailly (so it was passed down from father to son like other titles of nobility): Jean ...
5
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2answers
184 views

Exactly when was the country of Andorra founded?

Founding origin myths of Andorra claim that Charlemagne the Great (King of France and Holy Roman Emperor) granted the people of Andorra independence in 800 AD. I'm doubtful of this claim as no written ...
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4answers
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If the heir to a Kingdom is called Crown Prince, what is the heir to a Duchy called?

Just like the title said. What a heir to a hereditary Duchy is called? (as opposed to someone appointed by a King). I mean a Duchy where the Duke inherited his title to his son/daughter. Since the ...
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5answers
2k views

Is it true that Proto-Ukrainians conquered Europe and India?

I am a Ukrainian high school student. Recently we were told by a teacher that Proto-Ukrainians, the people who lived in the modern territory of Ukraine and ancestors of modern Ukrainians, once ...
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1answer
169 views

Why did the Arab spring and Iranian Green movement failed for the most part, but the European revolution did not? [closed]

Why did the Arab spring back a few years ago failed for the most part, the Iranian green movement didn't get the result it wanted, but the European revolutions (such as the French revolution, ...
15
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3answers
329 views

What exactly happened with beer and Leeuwarden in 1487?

On the history page for the day July 24th at Wikipedia, one of the events listed as happening that day is: 1487 – Citizens of Leeuwarden, Netherlands strike against a ban on foreign beer. This ...
0
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2answers
179 views

Was Catalonia ever a sovereign state? [closed]

This is one question that perplexes me: Was Catalonia ever a sovereign state? I understand that Catalonia was developed out of the Frankish counties of the Marca Hispania, but it still seems disputed ...
3
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4answers
904 views

Why was East Asia more religiously tolerant than Europe in medieval time?

In medieval time, different religions coexisted in China, Japan and Korea, but only Christianity was allowed in Europe. What factors made medieval East Asia more religiously tolerant than medieval ...
6
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3answers
420 views

What happens if a vassal inherits not under the control of their sovereign?

For example, suppose some count in France inherits a county in the Holy Roman Empire. Does the count become a vassal of both the King of France and the HRE? What if said Count inherited a whole ...
18
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3answers
1k views

Did people use to marry much younger during the last millennium?

I've frequently heard it stated that "people used to marry at much younger ages" historically. Recently, these kinds of statements have tended to show up in sociological discussions about young ...
3
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0answers
88 views

Motivations of the the First Crusade [duplicate]

What sort of balance in motivation existed for the first Crusade between answering a plea for assistance from the Byzantine Empire and reclamation of Jerusalem? Obviously it would vary between ...
71
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7answers
49k views

Why was Poland spared from the Black Death?

The featured image of the Wikipedia page for the Black Death is a gif showing the spread of the bubonic plague throughout Europe. There are a few places where the plague never spread to, including the ...
6
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2answers
817 views

Why did silver gain prominence in trade over gold in Early Medieval Europe?

After the Roman Empire's slow decline, and its withdrawal from much of northern Europe (France, Germany, Britain), gold coin use seems to have declined to the point where it would be a rare to see ...
3
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2answers
239 views

Why was there a reference to the Battle of Hastings in Harper Lee's novel?

I am unfamiliar with details of European history; how is the Battle of Hastings relevant to the historical background in Harper Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird? Chapter 1, Paragraph 4: Being ...
6
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0answers
129 views

Has being a single mother been always stigmatized?

Being a single mother was obviously a big economic disadvantage. And in the times when the Christian church morality dominated every day life, being a single mother was obviously a proof of a sin. But ...
4
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2answers
243 views

Written sources that mention Macedonia, prior to the 19th century?

Before the Balkan Wars Macedonist ideas were shared by a limited circles of intellectuals. They grew in significance during the interbellum, both in Vardar Macedonia and among the left-leaning ...
4
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0answers
79 views

Are the traditions of Ground Hog Day connected to those of Candlemas Day in Europe? [closed]

Today, the 2nd February was Ground Hog Day. In Europe it was also Candlemas Day (the Feast of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple). Now there is a tradition in America that if the humble ground ...
40
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7answers
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Why aren't there major cities on the Atlantic coast of France?

I see Bordeaux and Nantes, but they are a short ways inland. The U.S. has several like New York, Boston, Miami, Charleston.
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3answers
21k views

Why were the Romans unable to conquer Germania?

Emperor Augustus ordered his army to subdue the Germanic tribes in what is modern Germany. This was promptly achieved and by 6 AD the Romans controlled Germany up to the river Elba. The Romans were ...
7
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1answer
318 views

Why was Bulgaria at war with both the Allied and the Axis at the end of WWII?

Bulgaria entered the WWII after signing the The Tripartite Pact (1 March 1941) which subsequently resulted in a long list1 of war declarations, unilaterally or mutually initiated, against Western ...
10
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3answers
1k views

Why was France given such a lenient peace after Napoleon was defeated?

For two decades revolutionary France had attacked and conquered many nations in Europe. Millions were killed. But when the allies finally defeated France, the peace was very lenient. France didn't ...
22
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5answers
2k views

Who were the pre-Celtic inhabitants of Western Europe?

I've heard it said that the Basque are conjectured to be the last remnant of Pre-Celtic Western Europe. When would have these people existed? What evidence do we have for their culture and habitation ...
26
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3answers
9k views

How did Europeans first acquire gunpowder?

I know that gunpowder was first invented in China around the 10th century, and it seems that gunpowder likely made its way to Europe via the "Silk Road." However, there doesn't seem to be a ton of ...
12
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2answers
402 views

Was Mohammed known and respected in seventeenth-century Europe?

I’m reading Andrew Pettigree’s fascinating book, The Invention of News: How the world came to know about itself. In the early days of newsprint, many felt that only people who actually needed to know ...
0
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3answers
338 views

What's the last record of pagan believers in Europe?

When was the last group of pagans wiped out? I'm interested in mainland Europe and the British isles, not fringe areas like Greenland. Edit: I am talking about authentic, contiguous, non Abrahamic ...
18
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3answers
8k views

What did squires do in the middle of a medieval battle?

According to wikipedia, a normal squire daily job included: Carrying the knight's armour, shield, sword, Holding any prisoners the knight takes, Rescuing the knight should the knight be ...
4
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2answers
240 views

Which tall building was completed in 1940 in Europe?

This chart from The Economist lists the tallest building completed each year since 1885. It seems a tallish building (over 100m) was completed in Europe in 1940, and indeed this was the tallest ...
8
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3answers
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Why was spice trade so profitable in the 15th century?

During the 16th century, Portuguese captured Melaka to dominate the lucrative spice trade; other city states such as Aceh, Banten, Brunei and Pegu also sprung up by exporting and trading spices. ...
26
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7answers
8k views

Was England considered a “colony” of France?

After the "Norman conquest of England", many things including languages, the ways of life, etc. have changed a lot in Europe. Especially it affected the English language significantly that a lot of ...
3
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1answer
382 views

Sieges: Average Attacker to Defender Ratio in Middle Ages

I have read that attackers should outnumber defenders, 20 to 1 or better 50-100 to 1 in sieges in a book about conquest of İstanbul, though I can not find its reference right now. I remember that this ...
39
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11answers
10k views

What were the reasons for the Renaissance / scientific revolution in Europe?

One of the common reasons given for the Renaissance and the subsequent scientific revolution is the rediscovery of classical works by scholars in Europe and the social change that the study of those ...
3
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2answers
124 views

What was the first book translated from Japanese to any of the European languages?

What was the first Japanese book translated and published in one of the European languages? By "first" I mean the date of translation, not the original.
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0answers
101 views

Differences between European monarchies [closed]

What are the main differences between the "new" monarchies and the "absolute" monarchies? From what I can tell, they where very much alike in several aspects: more centralized government, more power ...
9
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3answers
504 views

How did the First French Empire and allies differ from the other European monarchies at that time?

During the Napoleonic Wars (especially towards the end), France and most of its allies (e.g. Kingdom of Italy, Duchy of Warsaw, Kingdom of Spain) are absolute monarchies. However, they seemed to ...
12
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5answers
579 views

What did other European powers say when Portugal and Spain signed the Treaty of Tordesillas?

In 1494, Portugal and Castile (succeeded by Spain) divided all lands outside Europe, including the newly "on-discovering" Americas, between them signing the Treaty of Tordesillas. What were the ...
0
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2answers
163 views

When did flogging and other corporal punishments get abolished in Europe?

Where were the first and last countries that abolished flogging as a punishment? Edit: I hadn't seen the wiki articles below. Very interesting much don't go into much detail about non-Anglophone ...
4
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1answer
141 views

Who would have a good or fair command of Latin in medieval Western Europe?

This answer to this question states Latin was the language of diplomacy in medieval Western Europe, but this does not imply that royalty or nobility themselves knew Latin: it would suffice that a few ...
4
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4answers
6k views

Decline of the Spanish empire?

What caused the gradual decline of the Spanish colonial empire in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? A post I read claimed that the Spanish overestimated their wealth, and my teacher pointed ...
4
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0answers
70 views

Comparing Percentage Of Spanish Nobility Migrating To Latin America To Percentage Of Pan-European Nobility Migrating To USA And Canada

My question is whether the percentage of nobility migrating from Spain to Latin America is higher than the percentage of nobility migrating from Pan-European nations to the USA and Canada. The time ...
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0answers
142 views

Did ordinary(uneducated) citizens consider crusades a failure? [closed]

Did ordinary people (non noble, non-clergy, non-participants) view the crusades as a failure, and did the Catholic church lose reputation/prestige because of them?