For questions on German Empire, Weimar Republic, German Democratic Republic and the modern Federal Republic of Germany. Questions regarding the Third Reich should be tagged with Nazi-Germany.

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German WWI Retreat

I am wondering if there was any standardized signal for a retreat that the Germans used during WWI. I know that flares and sirens were used for various things, but haven't read anything regarding ...
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130 views

German private property and homes returned after founding of republic?

During the occupation of defeated Germany in 1945 the allied forces, including those of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union, seized and occupied thousands of private homes and other ...
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269 views

Why was the movement for Austro-German unity less successful than that of Italian unity? [closed]

Primarily, I am looking at the differences between say, the movements for German unity and that of Italian nationalists. The record shows that the people of Austria had accepted without much ...
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369 views

How did the German royal families lose power so quickly in 1918? What happened to them afterwards?

Before 1918, Germany was a federal empire. According to this Wikipedia article, The German Empire consisted of 27 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families. This included ...
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714 views

Why are most monarchies in Europe of German descent?

When we look at existing monarchies in Europe, following are of German descent: Royal Family of Belgium Royal Family of United Kingdom Royal Family of Denmark Royal Family of Liechtenstein Royal ...
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998 views

Why did the welfare state succeed in Bismarck's Germany but lagged in 20th-century Britain?

Otto von Bismarck pioneered the welfare state in Germany and Bismarck was/is greatly respected by Germans. Pre-World War I British Liberal Party made welfare reforms after the 1906 general election. ...
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557 views

Why wasn't the Free City of Lübeck ever restored?

There is a long history of free imperial cities having extra privileges within the Holy Roman Empire. Many cities in contemporary Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Italy were former free imperial ...
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4k views

What was the fate of most SS members after World War II?

What happened to most of the members of the SS after the war? Were they punished?
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221 views

In the late 18th century, would any of the southwestern area of Germany used Franks instead of their own currency?

While looking up family history I found an old German marriage document which specified a dowry of "1000 Franks." With that, the families in question were from the Suggental/Waldkirch area in what is ...
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1k views

Why did Empress Elizabeth and Catherine the Great of Russia have such different policies toward Frederick the Great?

Elizabeth of Russia seemed to consider Frederick the Great Russia's worst enemy. She waged the Seven Years' War in order to conquer East Prussia (which she planned to exchange to Poland for territory ...
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180 views

Effects of the Berlin Wall on modern-day Germany [closed]

The Berlin Wall had pretty strong effects on the German states at the time it was built, and right after it fell, but what are its continuing economic effects on contemporary Germany? I know there are ...
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1answer
111 views

Were there communes in Imperial Germany?

I wonder about the territorial division of Imperial Germany. The empire was divided among 26 states (in German Bundesstaaten). Each of them had an internal division system which of course differers ...
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274 views

What was it like for German Jews after WWII?

A movie I saw recently referred to the experience of German Jews who survived concentration camps and came back to live in German cities. It never occurred to me before how uncomfortable, or even ...
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83 views

Housing Materials, Structure and Style in the late Middle Ages in Germany

So my friend and I are coming to develop an Age of Empires-esque game set in the late Middle Ages. Like any good developers we're doing our research first and we've come up with some issues. When ...
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102 views

What is the status of Weber's protestant ethic thesis?

Max Weber in his famous book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism elaborates a thesis that relates the development of the capitalistic system is a result of the work ethic that emerged ...
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98 views

How did Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof end up on the list of prisoners to be released, by Black September?

After seeing the movie The Baader-Meinhof Komplex, I was confused by one part, which was how Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof ended up on the list of prisoners to be released at the 1972 Olympics. ...
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2answers
369 views

Was the Soviet Union in 1945 seeking to capture German soldiers and civilians, or drive them west?

The latter part of Prit Buttar's Battleground Prussia deals with the desperate attempts by German soldiers and civilians to escape from the ports and peninsulas of East and West Prussia in early 1945. ...
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246 views

M4A1 sherman vs Stug III ausf. G what were the odds in favor of sherman?

We've all heard stories after stories of how a lone tiger or panther made a practical scrapyard of shermans ambushing all day. But i can't find enough information on what happened when a sherman ...
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1answer
93 views

When did Frankfurt am Main adopt the Gregorian Calendar?

The Gregorian Calendar was adopted in Habsburg lands in 1583. As Frankfurt am Main was a Free City within the Holy Roman Empire, it fell under direct control of the [Habsburg] Emperor. However, if I ...
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144 views

When did Germany begin to store it's gold deposits abroad? [closed]

I just learned from this question that Germany is storing it's gold reserves around the globe. When did this practice start? What was occurring at that time that drove the decision? And an ...
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1answer
1k views

Missing link in the German tank development?

As you know, the Leopard 1 was not the first tank of postwar Germany. Germany work on different new tanks. There are prototypes as medium tank Indienpanzer (later developed into a Swiss KW30 and its ...
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1answer
97 views

Duchy and Electorate of Saxony during the Schmalkaldic War

The Wikipedia page for the Schmalkaldic War list the Duchy of Saxony and the Electorate of Saxony as opposing sides of the war, each with their own monarch (Maurice is the Duke of Saxony, John ...
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58 views

Employment statistics in Germany since mid-19th century [closed]

What is the most reliable source of employment statistics in Germany? I am interested in the time period starting from mid-19th century all the way to present days.
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2answers
646 views

Why weren't Baden, Würtemberg and Bavaria independent states ever restored? [closed]

The southern german states of Baden, Würtemberg and Bavaria were independent states until 1871. Their historical background is quite different from the northern Germany which was dominated by Prussia ...
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1answer
289 views

What was the rationale behind restrictions on Camera ownership in post-war Germany?

According to the accepted answer to this question: There are very few photographs from occupied Germany because it was illegal for >Germans to own cameras and similar regulations were enforced to ...
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2answers
187 views

Japan allying with Germany in WWII [duplicate]

So I've been studying imperialism. Focusing on Japan, Japan's imperialism is a result of its modernization which is a result of Matthew Perry's siege (not a good word). After the treaty of Kanagawa, ...
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3answers
1k views

Why and how did some Germans choose to join the Stasi (Staatssicherheit)?

I'm wondering; What motivated some Germans to join the Stasi or to support the Stasi? Were there any common backgrounds among those who did so apart from living or being from the East? Why did so ...
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1answer
109 views

Where was the ruling seat of East Francia located under Henry the Fowler?

It seems safe to assume that Bavaria wasn't an option as Arnulf the Bad controlled this area throughout Henry's reign. The only possible candidates that I can find are Memleben (where Henry died) or ...
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1answer
888 views

German influence if the Nazis had won [closed]

By German influence I am referring to the German language. I hear all the time that if Germany won the war we would be speaking German right now. Clearly there is a lot of exaggeration there and the ...
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49 views

Did Brahms really leave Germany because he was dissatisfied with the political realities of that time?

I read in a body of text introducing musician Johannes Brahms that one main reason he left Germany for Austria in 1862 was his dissatisfaction with the political reality ("repressive regime") at that ...
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4answers
274 views

What is the evidence to repudiate this version of the “stab in the back” myth?

The Stab in the Back Myth Among claims that need context and checking: The Jewish Lord Rothschild used his connections with American Jewry to get America into the war. This was, of course, very ...
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1answer
263 views

Why were terminal train stations built in Germany?

I talked to a friend who mentioned reading a theory about the placement of terminal vs passthrough train stations in Germany. In this theory, the Prussians were responsible for this decision during ...
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112 views

What exactly were the ties between Germany and the Holy Roman empire? [closed]

I'm wondering what kind of texts could be found that could explain their legislature and laws in that specific era as Otto II is placed under rule of both nations during his life. Holy Roman Emperor ...
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171 views

What did Thomas Mann yield in negotiations with Nazis in 1933?

The following is from the article on Golo Mann (1909 – 1994) in the German Wikipedia (translation courtesy of Google Translate). Golo Mann was the son of German novelist and 1929 Nobel Prize in ...
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98 views

High Quality, Primary Source on Troop Movements and Losses in Operation Barbarossa [closed]

I'm searching for a primary source on troop movements and losses in Operation Barbarossa. I've found one source, but it doesn't give any details about the source for the information, just "Army Doctor ...
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54 views

National Socialist litterature - Where to find it? [closed]

I'm trying to make my mind as to the influence of Freud's, Bergson's works on Nazi ideology as well as to some questions regarding Heidegger and the Nazi ideas. I was recommended to read Alfred ...
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4answers
820 views

What was the practical reason for East Germany to reunify with West Germany? [closed]

Why did the East German government decide that they should join the West? Was it their economical decline, political turmoil or anything else?
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123 views

Was smoking allowed aboard hydrogen-filled zeppelins?

The question is self explanatory: Were passengers aboard rigid airships filled with hydrogen, like the Hindenburg, allowed to smoke?
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1answer
374 views

Is the modern German language the same as it was in Roman times? [closed]

Was the German language influenced by any other languages? How did the German language get to what we hear today? I know that the letters were influenced by Latin, but did the language change or just ...
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2answers
136 views

How did the written Polish language survive in eastern Germany during partition (if it survived at all)?

After the partition of poland in the late 18th century, Prussia aquired a large part of Polish territory. Those areas suffered heavy Germanization process through assimilation and suppression of ...
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272 views

Who inherited from the pre- World War II German states?

The German states (aka Länder) have been completely reshaped after WWII and I wonder: Which current German states inherited laws and state-owned property from the former pre-WWII states? In states ...
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1answer
132 views

Were the Stalin March Notes a missed chance for the unification of Germany? [closed]

If yes, why did Adenauer reject the offer then? What about the opinions of the US, GB and France? I heard they were afraid that Adenauer would lose his majority and therefore miss the chance of ...
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81 views

Why aren't the Silesian Uprisings, especially the 3rd, refered to as a “war”?

Three Silesian Uprising happened in 1919, 1920 and 1921. While the first is definitely an "ordinary" uprising, the second is closer to be a civil war. The third uprising is definitely a civil war. ...
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1answer
181 views

How much is one 1945 German Mark to one 2016 Euro? [closed]

Is there a way to figure out the exchange rate of one 1945 German mark to a 2016 Euro and/or U.S. dollar? (edited)
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1answer
89 views

What was the reason behind the Reinheitsgebot (beer purity law)? [closed]

Was it some health concern, a matter of tradition being enforced via law? It doesn't make a lot of sense in today's world, but I imagine in context there had to be a reason.
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1answer
307 views

What should be historically correct costume of Doctor Faust?

What should be historically correct costume of Doctor Faust corresponding to the epoch, described by Goethe? I encontered with several pictures of Faust in the Internet, but they differ very much. ...
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1answer
142 views

When did Germany pay the full amount of reparations of the Versailles treaty? [closed]

I remember it was recently, but I do not know the exact year.
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226 views

Is Germany to blame for WW1? [closed]

Germany turned a local conflict between Austria-Hungary and Russia into a world war. Isn't Germany the responsible party here? I know this is an opinion but teachers told me that I make a good point. ...
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665 views

Germany's “Economic Miracle” [closed]

I heard, but cannot verify, that some economists call what Hitler did for Germany's economy an "economic miracle." This claims (my emphases): Hitler's Economic MiracleThe real reason for World ...