Islam is one of the monotheistic Abrahamic religions along with Christianity, and Judaism. Islam first gained prominence during the 7th century C.E. and is the second largest religious group in the world behind Christianity. A follower of Islam is known as a Muslim.

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Primary sources from Umayyad times

Background Most narratives about the events during the Umayyad rule come from sources that were compiled during the succeeding Abbasid rule. Since the Abbasids came to power through armed ...
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Who were the firefighters in Muslim North Africa in the 18th/19th Century and how were they organized?

As we know that the Romans already had some forces for keeping their cities secured and safe: The Vigiles who were what we now may call police and firefighters together! And as I failed to find some ...
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What reached Scandinavia/Northern Germany first: Muslims, or Islamic texts?

Years ago i had the chance to leaf through some Qur'an translations (Latin, German? some bilingual with Arabic text) in a library in northern Germany which are dated to 16th century and later. As we ...
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Thomas Jefferson's Qur'an notes and declaration of Independence [closed]

This book alludes to works of Thomas Jefferson studying the Quran and taking notes on it before writing the "Declaration of Independence". Also the book mentions that Jefferson had a personal copy ...
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216 views

Who first coined the name “Wahhabi”?

Specifically, did Muslims coin it or non-Muslims? Is there any evidence, recorded in history, about the first usage of this term?
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338 views

Did Mohammed exist, or was he created as a figurehead afterwards?

I have been listening to a podcast, called "The History of Byzantium" and in one of the episodes there was a discussion about the lack of reference to Mohammad or Qur'an in the century after his death,...
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Were Christian Mediterranean ports open to Muslim traders in the middle ages?

This article talks about Muslim-christian trade in the middle ages 11th-14th century, also referenced in this answer. In brief: Trade greatly intensified after the crusaded and was conducted at ...
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Is there a correlation between modern Middle East uprisings/wars and Ramadan?

One cannot help but notice that the current shelling of Israel by Hamas has started in the month of Ramadan. So did the war of 1973 and a few other troubles. Is this just a coincidence, or is there ...
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Did Ali give his allegiance to the three first caliphs?

The reigns of Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman as the first three khalifas (caliphs/successors) of Muhammad instead of Ali are one of the main point of contention in the Sunni/Shia split. I wonder if Ali ...
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158 views

How powerful and influential was the “last caliph” Abdul Mejid?

It is unbelievable to see how a Caliph was so easily deposed by Turkish parliament which begs a question: How powerful and influential was Abdul Mejid II? Was he merely a titular symbolic puppet who ...
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104 views

According to Islamic sources, did any prophet kill people for having the wrong religion? [closed]

If I remember correctly, the Bible mentions the fact that Elijah was killing people (directly or by ordering for them to be killed) because they were worshiping some idols and Baal and Moses ordered ...
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Christian hangmen in Islamic countries?

In an interview a senior researcher at Amnesty International explained that as far as I know certainly in Punjab and Sind provinces, the two largest provinces by population, the hangmen [...
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Are Shi’i imams really directly related to the Prophet Muhammad?

Do written (or at least oral) records that show that the Shi’i imams are directly related to the Prophet Muhammad?
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When did the Polovtsy convert to Islam?

Polovtsy is a name used to refer various Turkic tribes living to the East of Kievan Rus. I wonder at what point those Turkic peoples became Muslim?
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92 views

Where did the Gabare Jahangiri Dynasty assert authority?

Where did the Sunni Muslim dynasty assert authority?
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240 views

Were commandos brought in to break the Grand Mosque siege French or Pakistani?

In December 1979 some miscreants occupied the Grand Mosque in Mecca. I have read the Wikipedia article regarding this, but i am still unclear who broke this siege. Were they Pakistan army commandos or ...
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Where does the enmity between Shia and Sunnis stem from? [closed]

Shia and Sunni muslims are frequently engaged in violent clashes with each other, particularly in Irak and Syria at the moment. Where does this enmity stem from? Are the motivations mainly religious ...
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250 views

What historical evidence do we have for the Prophet Muhammed? [closed]

In the Sahih-Bukhari, a generally accepted collection of the times and sayings of the Prophet, there are a number of reports of contacts with other nations & empires; for example: Allah's ...
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Iran: Zoroastrianism and Islam

If Zoroastrianism is so strong in Iran, why was there an Islamic revolution? Why is it proclaimed as the Islamic Republic of Iran?
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Were there international Islamist movements before the US started supporting islamists in Afghanistan? [closed]

Were there international Islamist movements before the US started supporting islamists during the USSR's war in Afghanistan?
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265 views

Do authoritative Jewish historical records record the expulsion

The following wiki extract demonstrates the possibility that the Muhammad's expulsion of Banu Qaynuqa and execution of Banu Qurayza to be a myth. Do authoritative Jewish historical records track or ...
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Did Western China have special-named martial arts during Islamic era?

Islam brought by Prophet Mohammad had reached (parts of) Central Asia in less than 50 years after his death. Central Asia, especially China, is nowadays famous of its martial arts. Even in some muslim ...
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105 views

Why is the Muslim population higher than the Hindu population nowadays? [closed]

There are many Muslim countries in the world like Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Arab, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Yemen and Oman and nowadays Muslim population is higher in ...
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128 views

Origins of the term “Moderate Islam” [closed]

The term "moderate Islam" or "moderate Muslim" seems to be more common than "moderate Christianity" or "moderate Judaism", based on Google ngrams. How did the term originate, who created the term, ...
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Was burning/disposing of furniture a common act during the Iranian Revolution?

I thought for sure I learned this in school, but I can't find any reference to it online. The basic idea I remember is that for one reason or another the Ayatollah and his followers believed furniture ...
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What was Ghulam Ahmad's relationship with the British authorities in India?

An answer on Islam.SE claims, Ghulam Ahmad came out at a time when the British were trying to take over India, and they needed someone to stop the Muslims from fighting, and so bribed this man to ...
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Did the Christians plagiarize the holy war concept? [closed]

In my other question: Christian and Etruscan end of times I've asked why the Romans, the Byzantines and the Etruscans, in times of trouble, devoted themselves to contemplating the afterlife and did ...
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Why does only Iran have a Governor of the Jurisprudence?

Iran nowadays is an Islamic country that is ruled by a President and by a Wilayat el Faqih (in English he is called the Governor of the Jurisprudence ). This Wilayat el Faqih or Governor of the ...
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Was Islam spread by sword during Muslim conquest? [closed]

The common conception is that Islam was spreading by sword. No matter how you cut it, Muhammad was not only a religious leader, but a military leader who waged war against his enemies as soon ...