Islam is one of the monotheistic Abrahamic religions along with Christianity, and Judaism. Islam first gained prominence during the 7th century C.E. and is the second largest religious group in the world behind Christianity. A follower of Islam is known as a Muslim.

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How come Indians were not mass converted to Islam/Christianity?

India was ruled by Muslims from around 12 century to 1857 and then by British till 1947 but India still have a large number of Hindus. Countries like Indonesia, Afghanistan, Malaysia now have Islam as ...
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4answers
2k views

What was the religion of the Arabic people before conversion to Islam?

What was the dominant religion of the Arabic people when Prophet Muhammed started the Islamic religion?
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3answers
710 views

What was the status of Arab Christians during the crusades?

Did Arab Christians take an active role in the crusades in the Holy Land or at any point on their trip to the Holy Land. Or were they victims of the crusaders? Did the crusaders typically ...
17
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2answers
422 views

What was the structure of religious beliefs among the Arabic peoples before conversion to Islam?

Other questions on this topic has addressed the pre-Islamic religious beliefs in broad detail, including the conversion of near-Arab cultures. What was the specific nature of the pre-Islamic ...
14
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2answers
418 views

How did Muslim traders raise investments given Islam's prohibition of usury?

During early caliphate era (7th-13th century), Muslim traders dominated trade in Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean (see here and here for example). I think Islam's prohibition of interest or usury ...
13
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3answers
2k views

What caused the Iranian 1979 revolution to become Islamic?

How did an initially anti-Shah revolution become an Islamic revolution? Was it because of Khomenei's return to Iran such that he seized the Iranian revolution?
13
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1answer
1k views

Why did the Moors invade the Iberian peninsula?

Almost all of the information that I can find with regards to the Moorish invasion of the Iberian Peninsula simply states when the Moors invaded. There seems to be very little on what the motivation ...
13
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2answers
354 views

How was Abd al-Rahman I recognized when he arrived in Islamic Spain?

Abd al-Rahman I was the founder of the Umayyad dynasty in Spain, and he was one of the last Umayyad survivors when the Abbasid overthrew the Umayyad caliphate in Damascus. According to what I read, he ...
12
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1answer
646 views

How prevalent was pork in Arabia before Arabs conversion to Islam?

Before Islam and its prohibition of pork, was it a commonly eaten food? Or was it already prohibited by other religions/cultures? Or was it a kind of uncommon food, which was then prohibited? We also ...
12
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1answer
227 views

What are the origins of Pakistani laws on “blasphemy?”

Pakistan appears to have draconian laws against "blasphemy" of the Prophet Mohammed, Islam, or the Koran? ...
11
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5answers
482 views

Why did Jews not immigrate to the Muslim world?

Throughout most of history, Jews lived significantly better in the Muslim countries than in Christian ones. Moreover, after the expulsion from Spain, many Spanish Jews moved to the Muslim world (from ...
11
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2answers
294 views

What can be considered to be the single most important reason for the decline of muslim Golden Age?

In the middle ages, Muslims established some powerful empires. They conquered vast land and shown considerable advancement in arts, science and culture. There were lots of Muslim philosophers and ...
10
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4answers
532 views

What caused Iranians to convert to Shiite Islam?

Many old Iranians were Sunni Muslims. Even many of top Sunni scholars like Bukhari were Iranians. Also, most Arabs are Sunni Muslims. What was the historical effects(s) that caused Iranians to ...
10
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1answer
194 views

How did Saudi Arabia become and remain strongly Wahhabi?

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia staunchly follow Wahhabism, a very conservative and strict brand of Islamism that probably is the major factor of Saudi's strict policy and harsh implementation of Sharia. ...
9
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1answer
339 views

What was the original cause of the Camel War in Islamic history?

There are different interpretations about the Camel War. Who started this war and why? Which side of the war was the aggressor? The leaders of both sides were from the companions of the prophet ...
8
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2answers
201 views

What was Muhammad's religion before becoming a Muslim prophet?

According to this question, the predominant religion in Arabia before Islam was some kind of polytheism. While according to Muhammad's Wikipedia page, According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad ...
8
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2answers
147 views

Why is no one claiming the title of Caliph?

The Ottoman Caliphate was abolished in 1924 by a reform from Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and then the title was claimed by Hejaz. Soon, however, the kingdom was annexed by the neighbor Nejd, the two of ...
8
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1answer
81 views

Was the custom of covering Kaaba in black cloth adopted during the Fatimid era?

This answer to Why is the Kaaba covered in black cloth? states that the black cloth for Kaaba a tradition which is continued to-date was adopted by the Fatimids. Is that correct?
8
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2answers
315 views

Muslim population in Islamic Iberia

Is there a record or estimate of the Muslim population count in Iberia (Spain/Portugal) during the peak of Islamic rule? Probably 10th or 11th century? And how big was this in percent of all Iberian ...
7
votes
2answers
371 views

Is there a possibility that the Islamic civilization visited America before Colombus?

Islamic sources claim that there is historical evidence that an Islamic explorer visited America before Colombus and the Age of Discovery. An example. Columbus Was Not The First To Cross The Atlantic. ...
6
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1answer
135 views

Which texts/works were lost due to the Mongol invasions of Baghdad?

Which texts/works were lost due to the Mongol invasions of Baghdad? Baghdad was a center for learning and there seems to be an immense literature loss during the sack of that city, just like the ...
6
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1answer
155 views

What was the reason for the Ottoman empire to adopt the crescent moon as its flag/coat of arms?

The Ottoman empire used the crescent moon as its symbol extensively. Any reasons for the symbolism? I have read references to polythesim of Turks contributing to the crescent and star (which predates ...
6
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3answers
132 views

Military training in the Hijaz during early Islamic era

The expansion of the Islamic rule during early Islamic era was quite impressive. Before 629, Muhammad's rule was limited to one city Medina. 15 years later, at the end of Umar's rule, the Caliphate ...
6
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1answer
278 views

Did the Safavid rulers require all subjects to convert to Shi'a Islam?

On one hand I've read that Shi'a Islam was the only religion allowed in the Safavid empire. On the other hand, the empire contained parts of Armenia and Georgia, but Armenians and Georgians are ...
5
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1answer
147 views

Contemporary opinions on Caliph Omar's burning of the library of Alexandria?

I read that his reasons were, "If those books are in agreement with the Quran, we have no need of them; and if these are opposed to the Quran, destroy them." How were his actions viewed by others?
5
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0answers
186 views

Thomas Jefferson's Qur'an notes and declaration of Independence [closed]

This book alludes to works of Thomas Jefferson studying the Quran and taking notes on it before writing the "Declaration of Independence". Also the book mentions that Jefferson had a personal copy ...
5
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2answers
180 views

What was the response of the general Iranian public to the modernization policies of Reza Shah?

I have been reading the fascinating study on Iran by Nikki R. Keddie, "Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution", Yale University Press, 2006. In it she outlines the dramatic modernizing policy ...
4
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2answers
654 views

Have famous rabbis ever converted to Islam?

By "famous rabbi" I mean someone who was actually known in at least one community as an authority on Jewish law, not just one who successfully completed rabbinical training.
3
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2answers
147 views

Who first coined the name “Wahhabi”?

Specifically, did Muslims coin it or non-Muslims? Is there any evidence, recorded in history, about the first usage of this term?
3
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2answers
403 views

What are major differences between a Caliphate and a modern Republic?

As far as I know, a Caliphate elects a leader for a lifetime term, rather than having regular elections. Some caliphates choose their leader by a small group rather than have the masses choose, but ...
3
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1answer
118 views

Pre-islamic cultural inheritance in contemporary Iran

In contemporary Iran, what are the effect of pre-Islamic Persian cultural heritage that are not linked to islamic culture, religion and literature? In a previous question, I asked about ...
3
votes
2answers
306 views

During attack by Wahhabi Muslims of Saudi on Karbala city in Iraq, how many Shia Muslims were killed?

There are different stats about this. It is mentioned in different references, numbers ranging from 4000 to even 120,000. What is correct casualty count? Also did this attack really happened in ...
2
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1answer
427 views

Did Gandhi ever make a comment about Islam?

Gandhi famously said about Christians: I like your Christ, I do not like your Christians. Your Christians are so unlike your Christ. I realise that in his time the Indian subcontinent was being ...
2
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0answers
115 views

Are Shi’i imams really directly related to the Prophet Muhammad?

Do written (or at least oral) records that show that the Shi’i imams are directly related to the Prophet Muhammad?
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2answers
292 views

Iran: Zoroastrianism and Islam

If Zoroastrianism is so strong in Iran, why was there an Islamic revolution? Why is it proclaimed as the Islamic Republic of Iran?
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1answer
54 views

When did the Polovtsy convert to Islam?

Polovtsy is a name used to refer various Turkic tribes living to the East of Kievan Rus. I wonder at what point those Turkic peoples became Muslim?
0
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1answer
106 views

Do authoritative Jewish historical records record the expulsion

The following wiki extract demonstrates the possibility that the Muhammad's expulsion of Banu Qaynuqa and execution of Banu Qurayza to be a myth. Do authoritative Jewish historical records track or ...
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2answers
75 views

Why does only Iran have a Governor of the Jurisprudence?

Iran nowadays is an Islamic country that is ruled by a President and by a Wilayat el Faqih (in English he is called the Governor of the Jurisprudence ). This Wilayat el Faqih or Governor of the ...