Poland was an important Eastern-European kingdom between the 11th and 18th centuries. For the next 123 years, it was partitioned between other countries. In 1918 it became a democratic republic, which after World War II joined Warsaw Pact. In 2004, Poland joined the European Union. Check full tag ...

learn more… | top users | synonyms

9
votes
2answers
428 views

Ethnic Germans in Russian service in Poland

General Brusilov wrote in his memoirs that a few years before the war he was serving in a high military position in Russian-controlled Poland and that he was appalled by the fact that all Russian high ...
6
votes
1answer
92 views

Was Pawiak prison in Warsaw originally for political or general prisoners?

I was reading about Pawiak prison in Warsaw and the general consensus appears to be that it was built between 1829 and 1835 during a time of Russian occupation. It seems clear that after the January ...
2
votes
1answer
458 views

Why have Polish kings been such a “mixed bag?”

"Mixed bag" is an American term that might be translated as "apparently random." I'll date the question from the mid-16th century Union with Lithuania until 1795. During this time, there was a French ...
6
votes
4answers
609 views

How would Eastern European emigres have traveled across Eastern Europe to Warsaw in the early 20thC?

I was looking back at my grandmother's voyage to America, she made the trip from Zbaraz in the Ukraine through Warsaw and then on to Gdanks and through steerage class to the New York. I know she took ...
10
votes
1answer
527 views

What corrections did the Catholic church make to the Copernicus work “De revolutionibus”?

Catholic encyclopedia says: On 5 March, 1616, the work of Copernicus was forbidden by the Congregation of the Index "until corrected", and in 1620 these corrections were indicated. Nine sentences, ...
4
votes
1answer
219 views

Why Californian Indian leader Estanislao was named after Polish martyr?

Researching for Polish people dealing with Indians during 19th century, I've found out about Estanislao, one of Yokuts' leaders, who led different groups of Californian Indian rebels against Mexican ...
5
votes
1answer
298 views

What happened to copies of Holy Lance (Holy Roman Empire regalia)?

This question is only about copies of the spear that's kept in Vienna, not the Roman one or any other that are connected with "original" Holy Lance. I'm making this research for the story I'm in the ...
2
votes
1answer
211 views

How come the British did not notify the Poles about the Molotov-Ribbentrop secret protocol?

I have just read this answer and would like to know if there is a known reason why the British did not inform the Poles. Or is the whole thing wrong?
17
votes
1answer
311 views

In which document was the exact course of the northern part of the German-Polish border decided?

While researching the answer to "How was Germany's border decided?", I didn't manage to find any documents which would precisely describe the borders between Germany and Poland between the points 53° ...
6
votes
2answers
293 views

How did Poland fare under “personal unions?”

On at least two occasions, Poland appointed as kings, rulers of other countries. Once was in the fourteenth century, when the king was Lajos of Hungary. Another was in the eighteenth century when the ...