The leader of Catholic Church, also the Bishop of Rome and head of Vatican state, previously Papal State. The first pope ever is St. Peter.

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What was the relationship between the Catholic Church and the Carolingian emperors?

Charlemagne was crowned by the pope in the year 800. But was it Charlemagne's choice, or was he compelled to do so? Having conquered his lands, couldn't he just crown himself emperor? Moreover, did ...