The leader of Catholic Church, also the Bishop of Rome and head of Vatican state, previously Papal State. The first pope ever is St. Peter.

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Inquiry into the nature and roots of the temporal power of the Roman Catholic Pope:

The Roman Catholic Pope is head of both the Roman Catholic Church: "Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church", and a head of state: "Sovereign of the Vatican City State". Official list of Papal titles ...
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3answers
145 views

Who were the Catholic popes before Francis I who used names not of Latin, Greek or Jewish origin?

Who were the Catholic popes before the current Francis I who used names not of Latin, Greek or Jewish origin? Particularly, names of Germanic origin, like Francis.
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3answers
347 views

Was any pope imprisoned during his service to Catholic Church?

On 11 February 2013, the Vatican announced that Pope Benedict XVI would resign on 28 February, due to infirmity from advanced age. Earlier in the history, few popes resigned similar way, probably the ...
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2answers
203 views

Diminishing powers of the Roman Catholic church in international matters

Before Enlightenment and Renaissance, Church or Pope had some powers which were almost same as what international organization may have. for example: After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, ...
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1answer
76 views

Did the Soviets attempt to discredit the Pope because of his outspoken anti-communism?

According to Ion Pacepa, a former Romanian General and head of Secret Service, Khrushchev authorized operation seat 12 that was designed to discredit Pope Pius XII by, among other things, ...
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2answers
2k views

How did the Catholic Pope manage to become more powerful than Kings in old Europe?

In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Pope seemed to hold more power than the European kings. This is strange because monarchs can raise armies. Pope and their bishops are not exactly military men. ...
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1answer
379 views

Did the pope try to suppress the number zero?

What evidence exists to indicate that the Pope attempted to suppress the number zero? In an editorial review, Rob Lightner claims that "Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea", by Charles Seife, ...
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0answers
126 views

Were Pope John Paul I's views anything that could imply a support for contraception? [closed]

Pope John Paul I was a short lived pope (only 33 days). There are rumours that he was assasinated. Someone told me that he was quite liberal (as catholic popes can go), and some of his ...
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1answer
497 views

How historically accurate are the Assassin's Creed games? [closed]

I've been highly entertained recently watching youtube videos of a game series called Assassin's Creed. It tells the story of a family who are members of a Order (called Assasins) who have waged a war ...
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1answer
566 views

Historical examples of an elected absolute monarch: [closed]

The Pope of the Catholic Church is an absolute monarch - Head of State of the Vatican City State. He is granted this title through an election by the College of Cardinals. See: The Pope...is currently ...
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1answer
396 views

Who was the French king during Pope Alexander VI (Borgia) [closed]

Who was the French king during Pope Alexander VI (Borgia) (watching Borgias TV Show) and interested. The one who started Italian wars.