Human exploration of space, whether by manned spacecraft or unmanned probes.

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When did we figure out that Venus was too hot for humans?

Today it's well known that the surface of Venus is incredibly hot, over 800 °F (427 ºC). Depictions of Venus in fiction, however, used to portray it as something close to Earth temperatures, ...
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Before 1961, what did they think would happen to people in weightlessness?

Reading up on the beginnings of human spaceflight, I came across this line on Wikipedia: [Vostok 1] was flown in an automatic mode as a precaution; medical science at that time did not know what ...
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What role did the space race play in reducing the nuclear threat during the 1960s?

Today I visited again the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center, a space flight history museum, and noticed for the first time the claim that part of John F. Kennedy's motivation for pushing for a ...