10
votes
2answers
296 views

What changed Japanese attitude to POWs in inter-war period?

I have read this excellent answer in which @Semaphore provides sources confirming that German defenders of Tsingtao were treated very well during World War I, which even lead to some tradition in ...
10
votes
1answer
784 views

Why did The Crown give assent to Apartheid legislation during the 1950s?

Why did The Crown give assent to Apartheid legislation during the 1950s? For example, the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act, Act No 49 of 1953 was assented to by the crown. The relevant law in ...
-2
votes
1answer
87 views

What was the main role of alcoholic drinks in ancient to medieval times? [closed]

I assume that alcoholic drinks served two main purposes in centuries gone by: To purify water for consumption Drunkenness I'm not clear on number one being the case, and if it is I'm not sure ...
14
votes
3answers
4k views

Did a Japanese medieval castle withstand US battleship fire during the Pacific War?

I have overheard the story from an US soldier that during the Pacific War the Japanese mounted a defense in an old medieval castle. The Americans asked for support from a battleship. The battleship ...
12
votes
3answers
360 views

Why were the Germans and Russians so fixated on an unlikely “separate peace” in 1945?

Anyone familiar with the history of WW2 will know that the Germans hoped for and the Russians feared the British and Americans in 1944/45 might make a separate peace with Hitler and even join together ...
3
votes
2answers
261 views

Where was the cultural inheritance of the Greco/Roman world/antiquity preserved?

In school and later in media (this is northern Europe) I was/am always told that it was the arabs/muslim world that preserved the science, technology, literature, art, culture etc from the Greek and ...
6
votes
1answer
52 views

How to collate the available contemporary press coverage of the 1936 US olympic hockey team?

This question is essentially asking how to go about searching as many mid-1930s newspapers and magazines as is feasible. I don't even know where to begin. Some major papers that are still in business ...
5
votes
1answer
56 views

Were boycotts, divestment, and sanctions effective against apartheid?

In the 1980s there was a movement to use boycotts, divestment, and sanctions (BDS) to apply pressure on the apartheid regime in South Africa. These efforts included sports boycotts, refusal of some ...
5
votes
1answer
110 views

How do we know that prostitutes were very common/popular in Corinth around Jesus' time?

I just started reading 1 Corinthians today, and one of the footnotes in my Bible (NLT, Life Application Study Bible) has this: ...there were more than a dozen pagan temples employing at least a ...
3
votes
1answer
128 views

What were the major strategies/ideas Britain exerted against Indian Independence movement?

The first flames of freedom were lighted in the 1857 revolt in India. After that in 1900s, the movements became stronger and spread over the country. There was diverse political, economic, military, ...
2
votes
1answer
88 views

Are there any images from ancient times in which Heracles is shown with a cornucopia?

I have read in Wikipedia the cornucopia was created when Heracles wrestled with the river god Achelous and wrenched off one of his horns. Are there any images from ancient times in which Heracles is ...
4
votes
0answers
41 views

What was the role of Konstantin Rokossovsky during WW1?

The Wikipedia article is very poor in this subject: On joining the Kargopolsky 5th Dragoon Regiment, Rokossovsky soon showed himself a talented soldier and leader; he ended the war with the rank ...
5
votes
2answers
846 views

What happened to the Polish Calvinists?

According to the Wikipedia article on Calvinism: Although much of Calvin's work was in Geneva, his publications spread his ideas of a "correctly" reformed church to many parts of Europe. [...] It ...
4
votes
2answers
129 views

What did the letter theta symbolize in ancient Greece?

In a Hubbard Communications Office bulletin, L. Ron Hubbard claims: A THETAN is, of course, a Scientology word using the Greek “Theta” which was the Greek symbol for thought or life. ...
5
votes
4answers
211 views

How did the upper class stay wealthy in the past?

If I am not mistaken, people in the past tended to have enough offspring so that they increased the population of their family until the maximum sustainable population was reached, due to the lack of ...
5
votes
1answer
171 views

When did cheese enter the Korean diet?

The local Korean deli uses cheese in many of their dishes; my friends from several other East Asian countries have commented that they still consider cheese to be unusual and not part of their normal ...
3
votes
1answer
97 views

4th of July and Tchaikovsky

This question Why do the Japanese sing Ode to Joy during the Japanese New Year? brings another similar one. I live in a small US Midwest town, and every year they celebrate the Independence day (4th ...
14
votes
1answer
610 views

Why do the Japanese sing Ode to Joy during the Japanese New Year?

During the New Years, the Japanese have a curious custom where they perform Beethoven's 9th symphony. This has produced some stunning sights on youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xBlQZyTF_LY ...
4
votes
0answers
154 views

Did parties of adventurers actually exist? [closed]

In the role-playing sense of parties of particularly various skilled people going around and killing animals, killing bandits, sorting out various awkward local political/military problems and ...
8
votes
3answers
277 views

What was Finland's role in the siege of Leningrad?

My understanding was that Finland was not really pro Nazi Germany, but merely wanted to recover the lands lost to the Soviet Union in the Winter War of 1939-40. That is, "the enemy of my enemy is my ...
1
vote
1answer
102 views

Does any evidence exist that suggests Hitler’s primary reason for declaring war on America was an attempt to draw Japan into his war with Russia?

During the first few months of the Nazi invasion of Russia, Stalin feared a Japanese attack from the east would create a two front war. In August, he was finally convinced by intelligence reports that ...
12
votes
1answer
295 views

Strange symbol on Midwest brick home

I am looking for help or guidance with something located on my parents 100 plus year old (we believe early 1900's, maybe earlier) brick home. They live in IL, just east of St. Louis, MO and have ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

Why didn't Germans use chemical warfare during WW2? [duplicate]

(I have read this discussion but I feel it does not answer completely) Why haven't Germans massively use chemical warfare during WW2? The Wikipedia has a text, but for me the reasons are weak: ...
21
votes
10answers
4k views

Are tanks the only reason for the abandonment of trench warfare?

The First World War in the West was for 4 years restricted to trench warfare. Gaining enemy territory cost many human lives for both sides. The main (or maybe most spectacular) battles were Verdun and ...
-1
votes
0answers
94 views

Which WWI generals wanted to be involved in close fighting but were forbidden?

The following originates from the transcript for a video under point 6 of this BBC article: This goes against the ideas of generals sitting out the war safely behind the frontline. In fact, so ...
3
votes
1answer
91 views

How common is nostalgia for the colonial perod in countries which gained independence in the 20th century? [closed]

Having spent most of my life in Eastern Europe, I observe that a lot of people have at least some nostalgic feelings toward the era of Soviet occupation. Of course, personal freedom, free speech etc. ...
11
votes
1answer
134 views

How did people and goods move between East Pakistan and West Pakistan?

Prior to Bangladeshi independence in 1971, what routes did people and goods take to move between East Pakistan and West Pakistan? Obviously, they couldn't have gone straight through India. I imagine ...
5
votes
4answers
179 views

Why was Japan not colonized? [closed]

Why was Japan NOT colonised by any of the European countries when practically all of the Asian countries were being colonised by a European nation? Why did no army even clash against the Japanese ...
1
vote
2answers
103 views

What's the origin of Crespi plates? [closed]

I've found this article about The Mysterious Crespi Collection & The Metal Library And there is a picture of The enigmatic Crespi plate: And it's said: The age and origin of these items is ...
3
votes
2answers
53 views

Why was Mexico's former ruling party named the *Institutional* Revolutionary Party?

The party was founded in 1929, but its current name was given in 1946. What does the word institutional mean in its name? Does it mean 'revolutionise the institutions'? Or does it mean 'the ...
0
votes
1answer
83 views

When did hunting from trains stop? [closed]

You know how in an earlier time passengers used to get bored crossing the empty expense separating Pacific states from the rest of civilization (the first trains took a bit longer than ours) and they ...
2
votes
0answers
40 views

How did the Railway Engines get to the Rainhill Trials?

The five locomotives that took part in the Rainhill Trials came from all over the UK. How were they transported to Rainhill? The rail network was pretty much non-existent, so presumably by road. I ...
1
vote
1answer
120 views

How do historians decide who to refer to as 'the allies?'

In many major wars one side has been branded collectively as the allies. In WWI and WWII we refer to the American/British coalition as the allies. I have heard Rome both fighting against the 'allies' ...
0
votes
0answers
58 views

Did the rebels in the War of American Independence acknowledge the English Civil War rebels as an influence on their thinking?

I asked before about Cromwell, who it seems was viewed negatively. What about the ideas of people like the Levellers, or more general republican ideas that existed in England at that time?
8
votes
4answers
844 views

Why didn't “Europe” support the Byzantine Empire against the Turks?

Why didn't Catholic Europe support the Byzantine empire against the Turks? Or did they? How? Yes, there were some differences between the Catholic and Orthodox interpretation of christianity but the ...
5
votes
2answers
192 views

Why, and how, did chain stores come into being?

Why did chain stores come into being? What social purposes were they initially used for? How did chain stores come into being? What business practices, social and economic contexts allowed early ...
1
vote
1answer
168 views

What does the phrase “Vietnam, the mixture of up and down” mean?

I bought this lighter today and it's supposed to be in the style of what soldiers fighting in Vietnam carried. I don't understand the quote on the back, though.
4
votes
0answers
95 views

Can anyone identify this sword guard?

I dug this sword guard while I was metal detecting at a Revolutionary War site. I have been researching for days and asking for assistance on other forums but I have not had any success. I would ...
7
votes
3answers
286 views

What do Florence, Genoa, Milan and Venice have in common?

This building, located in Genoa, Italy, displays the emblems of four cities: from left to right Florence, Genoa, Milan, Venice. It is currently an university building, but I don't know how long it ...
-1
votes
0answers
68 views

Identification of a 1900s-1910s building

This post card reminds me of a military school like West Point or maybe a 19th century prison. It looks familiar so I feel it might be well known to the general population. It was found in an antique ...
1
vote
0answers
101 views

Vikings as Transmitters of Red Hair [closed]

I read that red hair originates in Scandanavia, and not in Britain. That before the Viking conquests of Britain and Ireland in the 8th-10th centuries those islands were populated mainly by dark-haired ...
4
votes
2answers
159 views

Did early nineteenth century commoners know their royalty?

I'm wondering if European commoners in the early nineteenth century knew who their royalty was. I'm sure not all of them would have recognized them face to face because there may have been little ...
4
votes
2answers
145 views

What were non-Communist contemporary reactions to Stalin's purges?

Stalin had people such as Kamenev, Zinoviev and Bukharin and many others convicted of trying to overthrow the Soviet Union, something which we know to be untrue. Abroad, foreign communist parties ...
9
votes
3answers
407 views

Did Mussolini know that Hitler was going to attack Poland?

Did Hitler inform Mussolini of his decision to attack Poland in advance? Was Mussolini in favour?
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Are there any publications in English about the Saltukid dynasty of Erzurum? [closed]

I went to Turkey recently. I stayed in Istanbul and then I went to Erzurum. I noticed that the Historic structures in Erzurum were quite a bit older and different in architectural style (the Saltukids ...
3
votes
1answer
62 views

State-sanctioned historical “truth” [closed]

My question on Authenticity of the Russian birch bark manuscripts prompted me to think about the problem that one of the commentators called "state sanctioned truth"* These are historical events, ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Livery and retainer usage and size during the Wars of the Roses [closed]

I've been trying to research the use of livery in medieval Europe, specifically during the Wars of the Roses. Firstly,is there anywhere I can view a list of Nobles present at specific battles, ...
0
votes
1answer
88 views

When is it okay to use the word “Indian” when meaning “Native American?” [closed]

It has always been a personal pet peeve of mine when Native Americans are referred to as "Indians." It has nothing to do with respect for Native Americans or political correctness; it is entirely ...
-2
votes
3answers
95 views

Other than China, on which countries' banknotes is the same individual shown? [closed]

I noticed that all denominations of China's banknotes feature Mao. What other countries in the world do the same---where the same individual appears on every banknote? I guessed that another country ...
-4
votes
1answer
108 views

Did Hitler plan a war with his allies?

Nazi Germany's allies, Italy and Japan displayed a lot of ideological dissimilarities with the Nazi Germany's ideology and also Germany had some Germans-populated regions inside Italy (South Tyrol). ...

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