7
votes
1answer
165 views

What were the requirements in order for a man to become a burgher (or citizen) in German cities in the middle ages?

I really need some help answering this question. Could a man who lived in another town or part of Germany, for example East Frisia, about 1500 AD, go to Bremen for example and become a burgher there? ...
7
votes
3answers
524 views

Before the use of Anno Domini dating (BCE/CE), how were years numbered?

Currently we use Anno Domini (A.D.) year numbering, sometimes secularized as "BCE" (Before Common Era) or "CE" (Common Era). What was the prevailing method of dating years in Western culture before ...
2
votes
5answers
471 views

Battles that ended with a disaster for all the parties

Have there ever been (recorded) battles (in the middle-ages) which ended badly for all parties? I would like to explain what could be meant by disaster giving to possible scenarios: by disaster I ...
10
votes
3answers
984 views

Why was France given such a lenient peace after Napoleon was defeated?

For two decades revolutionary France had attacked and conquered many nations in Europe. Millions were killed. But when the allies finally defeated France, the peace was very lenient. France didn't ...
1
vote
3answers
141 views

Profit of slave labor in America

In his memoirs about his personal life as a slave and slavery in general, Moses Grandy on page 65 claims that: "The proprietors, though they live in luxury, generally die in debt: their negroes are so ...
0
votes
2answers
73 views

Feudalism vs Serfdom [closed]

Are these two the same? I was thinking that Serfdom will always exist on your feudalism but not vice versa. For example Peter the Great of Russia employed serfdom however these service were not part ...
7
votes
3answers
330 views

Why did the French Revolution bring secularism?

The Roman Catholic Church was one of the victims of the French Revolution. Many of the priests, nuns, and other clergyman were abolished. Why did the revolutionaries "hate" the Roman Catholic Church? ...
12
votes
1answer
398 views

In England, how many Jews died during the persecutions of the crusades during 1190-1200?

As is well known Steven Runciman, a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages, definitively clarified what the Holy War had been: "The Holy War itself was nothing more than a long act of ...
6
votes
1answer
176 views

Did genocide occur in the Football War?

In the Football War between El Salvador and Honduras, the El Salvador claimed that genocide had occurred in Honduras. However, was anybody actually prosecuted for these actions, or were these claims ...
33
votes
8answers
7k views

Why did Chamberlain act to appease Hitler leading up to the outbreak of World War 2?

There are accounts that British Prime Minister Chamberlain sought to appease Hitler because he just didn't want Britain involved in a war at that time. Others also argue that Chamberlain was naive and ...
10
votes
3answers
557 views

Is there evidence of extensive Viking presence in North America?

The Vikings appear to have had two long-lasting communities in Greenland, and a site has been found at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland Canada. But is there any solid evidence that the Vikings had ...
0
votes
0answers
55 views

Did Watt or another inventor have a dream about ball bearings?

I have put in a fair amount of searching for this but have come up empty. I specifically remember the story printed from my childhood like 30-40 years ago, but I wanted to see if there's any source ...
11
votes
3answers
368 views

Why did the US insist on invading Japan instead of blockading it in WWII?

One of the reasons often used to justify the use of nuclear weapons is that the alternative strategy, firebombing and invasion of Japan, would have caused much more death and destruction for both ...
15
votes
3answers
20k views

How many people in the US starved to death during the Great Depression?

I was trying to look this up earlier and could not easily find reliable information on the internet, mostly due to a new popular claim that 7 million people starved to death in the Great Depression! ...
20
votes
6answers
2k views

Is there any evidence that the Catholic Church slowed innovation during the Middle Ages?

I often hear that the rate of innovation was very high during ancient times in Greece and the Roman empire. I've also heard that the rate of innovation was reduced once the Catholic Church gained ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

When and why did Girondins split from Jacobins

So I'm reading through Schama's Citizens and am thoroughly confused. I've gathered that at the beginning there were Feuillants and Jacobins, of whom the majority were followers of Brissot, the ...
5
votes
2answers
917 views

During the Normandy landings, were any German naval assets brought to bear against the Allies?

I know the allied fleet suffered heavy losses during the operation: Naval losses for June 1944 included 24 warships and 35 merchantmen or auxiliaries sunk, and a further 120 vessels damaged. ...
6
votes
4answers
601 views

What did the Romans call black people (sub-Saharan)?

What did the Romans call black people (sub-Saharan)? In classic Latin as well as vulgar latin and slang.
15
votes
1answer
312 views

What did Vikings wear in cold wet conditions at sea?

As you can see from this BBC documentary, the crew of this 2009 summertime journey from Denmark to Ireland in a Viking longship suffered from hypothermia (approx 00:20:00 into the video), even though ...
4
votes
0answers
64 views

What happened to the imperial archives stored at the Tabularium?

The Tabularium in Rome was used to house the archives of the Roman Empire. Unfortunately, these archives do no longer exist. What happened to them?
1
vote
0answers
101 views

Was Mein Kampf prohibited in occupied France? [closed]

Because the Nazis did not want the French to know about the anti-French attitude of Hitler?
6
votes
3answers
291 views

Why didn't Native Americans have big sailing ships?

Many European and East Asian powers had very large sailing ships: clippers, junks and the like. Polynesians had sailing capacity, although theirs ships weren't as large. Why didn't Native Americans ...
2
votes
2answers
107 views

Did Farmers Survive Communist Famines?

Reference on mass killings, some of which include famines (this from Reason). Also, this site has an interesting question about the famines and Soviet leadership keeping it a secret. Is there any ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

In which year of the post-WWII Occupation of Japan was the Imperial Rescript on Education repealed?

The 1890 Imperial Rescript on Education was repealed during the Allied Occupation of Japan led by Douglas MacArthur, but I cannot find an exact date for this, or even in which year it happened. I am ...
1
vote
3answers
187 views

How did 2nd century Romans decide where to build Hadrian's wall?

How did 2nd century Romans decide where to build Hadrian's wall? It is located exactly at the narrowest east-west section of the island. They had no laser theodolites, lenses, aerial observation ...
2
votes
1answer
114 views

Why is physical skeuomorphism so prevalent and when did it become popular?

Plastic items with molded shapes to look like screws and rivets. Household items, luggage, or other personal goods with manufactured patina. Cars with non-functional hood scoops or other ...
15
votes
3answers
233 views

What exactly happened with beer and Leeuwarden in 1487?

On the history page for the day July 24th at Wikipedia, one of the events listed as happening that day is: 1487 – Citizens of Leeuwarden, Netherlands strike against a ban on foreign beer. This ...
-2
votes
3answers
3k views

Is there any evidence that the book of Isaiah was written before Cyrus?

The OT Prophet Isaiah lived in the 8th-century BC. Cyrus, the Emperor of Persia, lived well over one hundred years later: Cyrus (580-529 BC) was the first Achaemenid Emperor. Yet The Book of Isaiah in ...
11
votes
5answers
504 views

Why did non-monarchic rule meet with so little success in ancient China?

In the ancient world, the states around the Mediterranean were ruled by various forms of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, each of which had varying levels of success. Meanwhile, in China, monarchy ...
1
vote
1answer
81 views

To what extent is a coincidence that the Dec. of the Rights of Man and the Citizen and the USA Dec. of Independence were approved so close in time? [closed]

France helped North Americans revolutionaries during the Independence War. The USA Declaration of Independence (USA, 1776) and the US Constitution (USA, 1787) influenced the content of the Declaration ...
27
votes
6answers
25k views

Why did China shut itself out of the world in the 15th century?

After a period of maritime explorations (see Zheng He) in the early 15th century, the Ming Dynasty started shutting the Middle Kingdom out of the rest of the world. This of course continued with the ...
6
votes
4answers
3k views

Can anyone explain why a wreck of a battleship lies in the Nevada desert?

Can anyone explain the reason why a wreck of a battleship lies in the Nevada desert as it is represented in the picture above?
22
votes
5answers
2k views

Who were the pre-Celtic inhabitants of Western Europe?

I've heard it said that the Basque are conjectured to be the last remnant of Pre-Celtic Western Europe. When would have these people existed? What evidence do we have for their culture and habitation ...
8
votes
0answers
162 views

Is Lady Arabella Stuart wearing a Jewish symbol?

In this portrait, Lady Arabella Stuart, a member of the Tudor royal court, is shown wearing a hexagram, presently known as the Star of David. It is unclear from the highest resolution photograph ...
10
votes
2answers
245 views

Have Moscow and Beijing ever been cities under the same rule?

Have Moscow and Beijing ever been cities under the rule of the same empire? It should have been Mongol Empire, I suppose. How long has it lasted?
1
vote
5answers
259 views

Has a government ever been elected with the full 100% of the votes?

In recent history, many Dictatorships have been elected with unbelievable results. For example Al Sisi in Egypt with 96,6 % of the votes, or Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi in Yemen with 99,8%. I would ...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

Was Caligula popular with the general Roman population?

Was Caligula, the Roman Emperor, popular with the general Roman population after his illness a few months into his reign?
-2
votes
1answer
61 views

Native American Technology [closed]

I want to know about Native American history. I am young, so I have not learned a awful lot about them. I want to know what kind of things they used for technology, and for what. So my question is: ...
7
votes
1answer
106 views

Which tax year was used to identify former Confederates belonging to the $20,000 exception of the 1865 Amnesty Proclamation?

The Amnesty Proclamation of 1865 granted near-universal amnesty to former Confederates in exchange for taking a loyalty oath; however, fourteen classes of individuals were excepted from amnesty, ...
16
votes
2answers
602 views

How much of an impact did the Roman emperors' civil wars have on their decision to debase the coinage?

From Adrian Goldsworthy's How Rome Fell: "Civil war remained a common event, ...the economy collapsed, as successive emperors massively devalued the coinage to pay for their wars." Other sources say ...
-3
votes
1answer
45 views

How did urbanization affect feudal society (middle ages)? [closed]

How did urbanization affect feudal society (middle ages) The political, economic and cultural affects. As well as how it started.
15
votes
7answers
806 views

Why were the Germans and Russians so fixated on an unlikely “separate peace” in 1945?

Anyone familiar with the history of WW2 will know that the Germans hoped for and the Russians feared the British and Americans in 1944/45 might make a separate peace with Hitler and even join together ...
1
vote
0answers
59 views

Where were Racka sheep brought to Europe from and when?

These are Racka sheep. The Racka is a unique breed with both ewes and rams possessing long spiral shaped horns. This sheep is a bit of a mystery, a mystery whose solving will shed new light on the ...
15
votes
7answers
671 views

Battles that took place on the ice

As my favorite ice hockey team became the champion of Poland today, I reminded famous Battle of the Ice that took place in 1242. During the fights, forces of Alexander Nevsky managed to draw Teutonic ...
1
vote
1answer
90 views

What was character of Chmielnitski's rise?

What was the character of Chmielnitski's rise? It has started as a private conflict between him and a polish nobel, Aleksander Czapliński. But what was after? And what was the reason to fight when ...
26
votes
2answers
3k views

How beneficial were war bonds to the US during WWII

I've been watching classic cartoon shorts from Disney and Warner Brothers. So many devoted time to encouraging Americans to buy war bonds. Did money collected from war bonds amount to a significant ...
-2
votes
2answers
170 views

Did the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki contribute to Japan's surrender?

Even before the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the war situation had developed not necessarily to Japan's advantage. Allied forces had been taking island after island, and were firebombing ...
18
votes
4answers
3k views

Was the Italian campaign a strategic mistake?

Background In September 1943, the Allied forces invaded Southern Italy in combined amphibious operations in Reggio di Calabria (Operation Baytown), Salerno (Operation Avalanche) and Taranto ...
20
votes
6answers
1k views

How did Islam and Hinduism thrive together in Medieval India?

In countries in the Middle East, Indonesia and many North African countries, the onset of Islamic rulers spread Islam in a rapid manner, eventually wiping off the local religion. However in spite of ...

15 30 50 per page