0
votes
1answer
133 views

How well did Lenin and Hitler knew each other? Were they some sort of friends? [closed]

I read a couple of short articles about Lenin and Hitler met each other, and there is a picture, a drawing from Emma Lowenstramm - which's by the historians' opinion is most probably authentic - where ...
6
votes
2answers
180 views

Are Russians descended from Varangian Vikings? [closed]

Some historians say yes, but some do not. There had been archaeological diggings in Saint-Petersburg and the Novgorod region, as seen in one rare documentary on Youtube. ( haha I am not studying ...
11
votes
5answers
623 views

Is chain mail expensive?

I've read many textbooks and talked to plenty of people who explained to me that making thousands of rings, then interlocking them is terribly expensive. This confuses me because history had Vikings ...
10
votes
1answer
495 views

How did Rome's legal system work?

How was it decided if a case should be tried in Rome or in the province by the governor of that province? was the governor always the judge or were there exceptions? who were the lawyers? I know a lot ...
0
votes
1answer
93 views

Which of the participant states was benefited in the long run by the Congress of Vienna?

Congress of Vienna took place in 1814-1815 aiming to restore stability in Europe after the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. Each state/kingdom sent their diplomat(s) to the congress in order to ...
8
votes
5answers
562 views

The Needham Question: What stunted China's technological and proto-scientific advancement?

According to Joseph Needham Why did modern science, the mathematization of hypotheses about Nature, with all its implications for advanced technology, take its meteoric rise only in the West at ...
9
votes
2answers
197 views

How did communist authorities decide who is “German” and who is “Polish” when expelling Germans from recovered territories?

It is a well known fact that Poland won a lot of territory over Germany after WWII, and that German people were expelled, and the place was re-settled with ethnically Poles. What is less known is how ...
5
votes
1answer
115 views

When did it become openly known that Wilson supported the Balfour Declaration?

According to this source he agreed with the declaration about one month before it was published. ...
16
votes
9answers
15k views

Why didn't Japanese infantrymen and samurai use shields?

Shields were considered useful in Europe until the development of full plate armor. Despite the fact that they never had anything comparable to plate armor, shield use was apparently abandoned by the ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

Looking for quote about workhouses

I recall someone (may MP at the time) said something like. No one that is in real need should be discouraged from using a workhouse due to its standard of housing and food, but on one that is ...
9
votes
2answers
453 views

Did Jefferson and Washington smoke weed?

According to this document (page 26, §1): Like all farmers, Washington probably sampled the quality and potency of what he grew, and he may have used this hemp to treat his chronic tooth ...
-1
votes
2answers
57 views

What is the difference between Taino and Puerto Rican?

I have heard a lot of Puerto Rican's call themselves Latino or Hispanic. However, after watching this video, I am a bit confused about what they say. Can anyone confirm why different Puerto Rican ...
1
vote
1answer
172 views

When were the most recent Amendments to the boundaries of Boston Ward 3?

When were the most recent Amendments to the boundaries of Boston Ward 3? What were the changes at the time?
11
votes
7answers
589 views

Why was not Greek alphabet adopted by other languages given the Greek influence?

Most of western languages adopt the Latin alphabet with minor variations. Arabic letters are adopted by quite a few other languages. The same is true for Eastern Europe with Cyrillic letters. Why was ...
4
votes
1answer
131 views

Ports Used by French Navy in 1792 and Strength of Fleet

I am currently writing series of young adult novels about the European Conflicts beginning in 1792. Where were the major and minor French Navy ports and yards, and what was the relative strength of ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

How were dagger axes used in battle?

During the Chinese warring states, weapons knowns as dagger axes were used and there is a wide body of evidence that those were common at one time -- so so I believe. Is there any record of fighting ...
17
votes
2answers
5k views

Did the Germans purposefully arrange to send Lenin to Russia to start a revolution?

A recent documentary, The World Wars, on the History Channel suggested, strongly, that the Imperial German government secretly arranged safe-passage for Vladimir Lenin to return to Moscow from ...
2
votes
1answer
133 views

End of WWII: potential U.S. atomic bomb production rate

Inspired by Did the United States have a third atomic bomb to drop on Japan? . Imagine Japan did not surrender after 2 bombs (just preferring to die), or a war with Soviet Union brakes out, or for any ...
10
votes
5answers
521 views

What are the safeguards in the German constitution of 1949 against dictatorship?

In the constitution of 1949 Germany ensured that chancellors could not endow themselves with additional powers, eliminating the chance of a repeat of Hitler's 1933 episode. What were these steps?
7
votes
1answer
178 views

Why are most late medieval fencing manuals German?

Not only is the German school dominating modern European martial arts, but almost everyone who talks about late medieval fencing refers to German fencing manuals as the primary source. Why are German ...
3
votes
0answers
75 views

What is the history of zirah bagtar armor used in India?

I am looking for information on zirah bagtar style of plate and chain armor. I am currently recreating a suit of that armor in this style and a history of its use and development have been ...
16
votes
4answers
8k views

How many lives were estimated to have been saved by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs?

**President Truman in a August 9, 1945 radio address to the American people, outlined the reasons why we dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima (and later Nagasaki) I realize the tragic significance ...
6
votes
1answer
517 views

What is the origin of the Flower of Life symbol?

I have been collecting resources and tracing the history of the Flower of Life geometrical symbol, since it contains great properties of many kinds: While the oldest occurence in Abydos, Egypt has ...
4
votes
1answer
604 views

How many USA men dodged the draft in Vietnam, and how?

During the Vietnam war, men who should serve just didn't, hiding or something else. Are there any numbers as to how many men should have served but didn't? Also, is there some information about what ...
23
votes
1answer
9k views

Did the United States have a third atomic bomb to drop on Japan?

On 15 August, six days after the bombing of Nagasaki, Japan announced its surrender to the United States, signing the instrument of surrender on 2 September, officially ending the war. The question ...
10
votes
3answers
2k views

Were there any Chinese expeditions to explore the world? If not, why not?

It occurred to me today that all essential historical exploration was done by the Europeans, who discovered the Americas and mapped most of the world. This got me wondering about Eastern ...
2
votes
2answers
52 views

What is the labelling system for artefacts?

I have no practical or academic experience with archaeology. Some well-known archaeological sites have colloquial names. For example Newgrange or its Kerbstone 52. They can be unambiguously referred ...
13
votes
6answers
5k views

Why did the scutum fall out of use?

Wikipedia says By the end of the 3rd century the rectangular scutum seems to have disappeared. Why did the rectangular scutum design fall out of use? Why was the shield design not commonly ...
10
votes
3answers
571 views

Did any armies systemically favor axes/hammers over swords?

In fantasy literature there are plenty of examples of cultures (such as the Dwarves of Lord of the Rings) who favor axes or hammers above swords in combat. Did any historical army follow that ...
3
votes
1answer
202 views

How is it known that Phidias used the golden ratio in the Parthenon?

I can see it is widely accepted he did, so there must be some source backing this up, since no work of his has survived (except for a vase in Olympia with the inscription "I belong to Phidias"). What ...
1
vote
1answer
128 views

How was the naval battle of Guadalcanal affected by Japanese ships loading bombardment shells rather than Armor Piercing?

During the first Naval Battle of Guadalcanal an American flotilla of five cruisers and eight destroyers challenged a Japanese group of two battleships, one cruiser, and eleven destroyers that was ...
6
votes
3answers
4k views

What is the first known organized religion in the world?

Which were the first religions to be created with well known scriptures, ceremonies and traditions? Was it that of the ancient Egyptians or the old kingdoms of the Middle East? What about Africa or ...
10
votes
4answers
1k views

What Are the Dynamics of A “Forced March?”

In the "Art of War," Sun Tzu opined that if you put your army on a forced march of a certain speed, you will lose one-third of your troops along the way. A rough rule of thumb was that an army would ...
7
votes
2answers
178 views

Why did Britain decide to issue perpetual bonds during Napoleonic era?

Background A few years ago I was a student of an economic course about loans, debts, interests, NPV etc. The trainer mentioned "The UK took a loan to fund wars against Napoleon. This has no term, and ...
4
votes
1answer
109 views

On the electoral system of Roman centuriate assembly

The centuriate assembly (Comicia centuriata) was arguably the most important assembly of the Roman republic. It was in charge of electing consuls, praetors and censors, of voting laws, declaring war ...
14
votes
2answers
2k views

How wealthy was Singapore at its independence (1965)?

According to this article Is Singapore the Perfect Country for Our Times? Singapore's defining achievement is summed up in the title of its longtime leader Lee Kuan Yew's memoir, From Third ...
9
votes
2answers
400 views

Can anyone identify this warship?

The picture is of a ship that my late father is believed to have served on, I can find no identification marks on the photograph, so even a type of vessel would be a great help, as I have no records ...
12
votes
2answers
3k views

Why does US currency have a 25 cent piece and a 20 dollar bill instead of a 20 cent piece or 25 dollar bill?

Why does US currency have a 25 cent piece instead of a 20 cent piece? Why is there a 20 dollar bill instead of a 25 dollar bill? Why aren't both denominations the same, 20 or 25 for both the dollars ...
9
votes
3answers
854 views

When passports/border checks became widespread?

I was reading the Wikipedia on passports, and there were numerous important dates in passport history, but I didn't find any date when passports became widely used documents for travelling. I see ...
0
votes
1answer
104 views

Is classical music 'bourgeois'? [closed]

Historically I am aware that classical music has always been an activity mostly reserved for the elite; therefore, it would seem that it is something completely inaccessible to the general population. ...
2
votes
0answers
60 views

I am looking for details that can confirm a story about a con-man during the installation of electrical poles and wires in Hungary [closed]

This story was told to my by my grandmother who is currently ~94years old. That puts the story to have taken place around 1920-1930. When she was little; living in Hungary, the country was in the ...
6
votes
2answers
106 views

Estimating gross domestic product in ancient times

I would like to estimate, to what extent the Roman republic (or different parts of it) were "agricultural". Today, a common measure to the "agricultural-ness" of an economy is the gross domestic ...
8
votes
3answers
2k views

When did the last Terra Nullius vanish from the earth?

By "Terra Nullius" or "white spot" I mean a place where you (if you were so inclined) could "legally" settle and live in some wilderness as a trapper or farmer without having to ask for permission, ...
-4
votes
0answers
112 views

Caribbean island forcibly depopulated

I seem to remember reading a notice that armed forces of the United States forcibly depopulated some Caribbean island to prevent the locals from mating within their own small group. I don't remember ...
5
votes
1answer
87 views

How did modern border security and crossing bureaucracy develop? [duplicate]

I was trying to read more on how present day border security and administrative framework (passports, visas etc) came into being but to not much avail. E.g. what was the first modern border crossing? ...
9
votes
6answers
714 views

Absolute rulers who voluntarily resigned their power [closed]

I am looking for examples of absolute rulers who voluntarily resigned their power. To get the ball going, here are two from Roman history: Sulla Diocletian. Chandragupta Maurya Jigme Singye Wangchuk ...
1
vote
0answers
93 views

What does the case of Louis Napoleon tell us about the passport regime in 1830s Europe? [closed]

Here is a more specific question about passports and borders. The Wikipedia entry on passports describes how for several decades leading up to WWI, the system for checking travelers' identities when ...
6
votes
1answer
104 views

In exchange for forbidding strikes, did Napoleon guarantee high wages?

According to Wikipedia citing Frank McLynn, Napoleon, Pimlico 1998 Ch 21, p482, strikes were forbidden by Napoleon I in exchange for a guarantee by employers that wages would remain high. How did ...
0
votes
4answers
542 views

What was the practical reason for East Germany to reunify with West Germany? [closed]

Why did the East German government decide that they should join the West? Was it their economical decline, political turmoil or anything else?
12
votes
3answers
3k views

Are there any historians who believe that the crusades were not motivated as a distraction from internal conflicts?

I was just debating with a Catholic acquaintance. He ascribed merit to the Catholic crusades and said that many historians agreed with him. Are there any historians who believe that the crusades were ...

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