6
votes
3answers
196 views

Why is there a Pegasus on Huey Long's grave?

The tombstone of Huey Long on the grounds of the Louisiana statehouse is engraved with depictions of his achievements as a politician. On the front, however, is a large Pegasus. Was the Pegasus a ...
8
votes
2answers
537 views

Did Andrew Jackson think the earth was flat?

You will occasionally see references to the possibility that Andrew Jackson believed the earth was flat. One source for this claim is a well-respected history of the period by Edward Pessen: ...
25
votes
2answers
1k views

Was Napoleon as short as “common knowledge” states?

I once saw a mention (on cracked.com) that Napoleon - who pretty much everyone "knows" was of very short stature - was actually close to average height for his time/demographics, and the short height ...
2
votes
5answers
510 views

Did the Southern States make any attempt to secede from the Union through an act of Congress?

I have read the answers about the legality of southern secession - very helpful; thank you. In light of those, I have another question: Did the Southern States make any attempt to secede from the ...
12
votes
7answers
509 views

Dictators who came back through elections?

Were there any dictators1 who, after being toppled by a revolution or the like, managed to get back to power via what is (or was considered by the norms applied at the time) free and transparent2 ...
18
votes
4answers
8k views

What did Germany do after World War II to recover so successfully that it became more prosperous than its WW2 victors?

Germany lost in World War II. Being the loser, its economy started at a disadvantage compared to her World War II victors in the aftermath of WW2. However, Germany managed to recover more ...
12
votes
5answers
2k views

Was there a constitutional mechanism to overturn the election of Adolf Hitler?

In March 1933 Hitler received 44 % of the votes during the elections and became relatively fast a dictator. Were there any constitutional or other legal mechanisms in place through which this ...
4
votes
2answers
260 views

Why did Argentina invade the Falkland when they did, rather than waiting for the pending sale of the UK aircraft carriers to complete first?

At the time of the Argentina invasion, the UK was the process of selling its aircraft carrier and reducing its naval capacity. If Argentina had waited a short time, it would have been much harder ...
8
votes
2answers
301 views

What documentary evidence is there that Roman crucifixion victims were completely nude?

(A few days ago, a user posted a couple good questions about the historic practice of crucifixion in Ancient Rome on the Christianity SE. Unfortunately, they posted the questions as an answer to this ...
21
votes
6answers
3k views

By mid-1945, was Japan capable of maintaining the war even in the absence of further direct American attacks? [closed]

The USA went to a great effort to defeat Japan, but do historians regard it as necessary? For example if the USA had just kept the naval action going to the extent of cutting of all shipping to ...
5
votes
2answers
106 views

Getae, Dacians, and Goths

Are the Dacians and the Getae the same people? When Caesar and Trajan refer to their enemies above the Danube, do they refer to the same people or different people? Furthermore, how do Goths fit in? ...
15
votes
3answers
2k views

What was this small state in the south of France in 1789?

On wikipedia I came across the following rough political map of Europe in 1789: To my surprise there seems to be a small state enclaved in the south of France, circled in the picture. I have no ...
3
votes
1answer
222 views

Why is the Bishopric of Canterbury located in London?

As far as I understand the seat used to be in Canterbury and then was transferred to London but kept the title. Is that true and when did this happen?
3
votes
2answers
296 views

Did land based airpower give the Americans a decisive advantage at the Battle of Midway?

This question was inspired by another (on a different SE site) about the Avalon Hill board game. As told in many American history books, the battle of Midway featured four Japanese heavy carriers vs. ...
23
votes
2answers
851 views

When did the Romans begin using the sword, as opposed to the axe, for decapitation?

According to this article, the Romans first used the axe for decapitation, and then moved to using the sword later. The article states: [B]eheading, a mode of executing capital punishment by which ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

Are there any shorter works approaching the breadth of Durant's “The Story of Civilization”? [closed]

Is there a survey of human history that approaches the breadth of Durant's "The Story of Civilization" that is less than 11,000 pages (i.e. that wouldn't require a lifetime of study)? I'm not a ...
7
votes
5answers
1k views

What does the inscription on this sword mean?

The British Library has a 13th century sword with unknown inscription. They recently started a call to arms to translate the inscription. The inscription reads: NDXOXCHWDRGHDXORVI Its meaning is ...
8
votes
1answer
444 views

Who started the “katana is the soul of the Samurai” meme?

Samurai used to be defined by their ability to use horses and bows in the early history of Japan. This moved to using the sword, first tachi then katana. Within the Tokugawa period, the katana ...
4
votes
2answers
414 views

Why wasn't the Free City of Lübeck ever restored?

There is a long history of free imperial cities having extra privileges within the Holy Roman Empire. Many cities in contemporary Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Italy were former free imperial ...
1
vote
1answer
151 views

Oh the humanity!

I notice that during the legendary on-the-spot broadcast (and resulting newsreel) of the Hindenburg disaster in 1937 features the exclamation from the broadcaster "Oh, the humanity!". Is this the ...
12
votes
1answer
333 views

Who was the first military force to use teppo (guns) in mass battles during the Sengoku-jidai?

Oda clan used guns to great efficency against the Takeda clan but which warlord (or faction) used them for the first time? I seem to recall that some of the sohei order had access to firearms and ...
-4
votes
1answer
80 views

According to game theory would Germany's post 1939 expansionism have provided the optimal economic benefits? [closed]

using Game theory only : Did implementation of economic polices pre 1939 reached a point that the optimal economical benefits would have been maintained/obtained by war? If no what were the game ...
4
votes
3answers
365 views

What is the origin of Friedensreich Hundertwasser's surname?

This is my first time posting on History.SE, so I hope my question is appropriate for this site. I've tried to look up the nationality of Friedensreich Hundertwasser's parents, that is Ernst and Elsa ...
1
vote
1answer
188 views

What did the Japanese believe about the USA capability of making/using additional atomic bombs?

Clearly the Japanese believed that if they did not surrender another atomic bomb would be used on them. However how soon did they believed this would happen? And how many atomic bombs did they ...
3
votes
5answers
795 views

Why were the 8th Route Army better at fighting the Japanese than the Nationalists were?

Numerous sources have noted the (Communist) 8th Route Army's effectiveness in its resistance against Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) occupation; British, American observers, even Japanese commanders have ...
6
votes
3answers
582 views

Where was the Japanese surrender signed on Okinawa in June 1945?

On the 21st of June, Japanese defences on the southern fringe of Okinawa collapsed. The following day General Mitsuru Ushijima and chief of staff Isamu Chō committed suicide. Colonel Yahara was denied ...
10
votes
4answers
1k views

What benefits were there to the USA of developing both Uranium and Plutonium bombs in World War 2?

Clearly there was a large cost both in money and resources. Working on both very likely slowed down the production of the first nuclear bomb.
7
votes
6answers
2k views

Why Europe became more developed although metal was first discovered and used in Asia/Africa? [closed]

Copper was first discovered and used in Middle East. Iron was first discovered in Egypt. What were the factors that allowed the development of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations (the father of ...
13
votes
3answers
5k views

How heavily were the British taxing their American colonies?

The British levied several taxes on the American Colonists (13), which were at least part of the reason for the American Revolution. Were the British taxing the 13 colonies for more money than was ...
9
votes
3answers
562 views

How and why did Polish rule over the Ukraine “downwardly deviate” from Lithuanian rule?

In the Middle Ages, "Lithuania" ruled over not only the modern Lithuania, but also modern Belarus and large parts of the Ukraine. The Ukrainiains seemed to accept Lithuanian rule for over two ...
3
votes
2answers
172 views

How did criminal law work in the Roman Empire?

I have old memory from when I was in little school: During the Roman empire, criminal law was very "flexible". You could kill nearly anyone in the Empire, as long as you were able to pay a fee to the ...
20
votes
2answers
905 views

Why did Meiji consider switching from Japanese to English?

During the Meiji restoration, the Emperor sought to switch Japan's national language from Japanese to English. Why was that? Why, ultimately, was it unsuccessful? The Role of English and Other ...
24
votes
4answers
4k views

Why did the Japanese expect the United States navy would attack the Home Islands?

Kantai Kessen, the Japanese naval strategy for a Pacific war, amounted to (simplified) "The American fleet will cross the Pacific to attack Japan. At that time, we will engage and defeat them." ...
4
votes
5answers
394 views

Why did email use develop in tandem with the internet, rather than other technologies?

During the 1980s, I envisioned a (primitive) version of email that would come off telex machines. That is, a person would sit down at a keyboard, create a document, store it on a cartridge, stick the ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Why and how did the CIA/OSS support non-communist French trade unions after WWII?

Why and how did the CIA/OSS support non-communist French trade unions after the WWII?
1
vote
2answers
116 views

Why and how did George V give titles to his generals over lands that he did not possess?

Edward Allenby was given the title Viscount Allenby, of Megiddo and of Felixstowe in the County of Suffolk. Megiddo lies in Israel, it was outside British possessions, although it was controlled by ...
10
votes
5answers
593 views

Athenian Democracy - How were the citizens motivated to be so politically active?

Considering the city-state of Athens and its interesting idea of a direct democracy (550 B.C.), I am comparing and contrasting the political activity of ancient Athenians and modern Americans. ...
51
votes
13answers
13k views

Did Imperial Japan choose to ally with Nazi Germany because of ideological similarity?

There are certain similarities that can be drawn between Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. Both were dictatorships, both believed in racism (though against different people), and both were wanting to ...
7
votes
1answer
255 views

What is the current academic consensus on Charlemagne's genealogy?

Every source I have seen agrees that Charlemagne's ancestral tree begins as follows: Charlemagne (c. 747 – 814) Pepin the Short (c. 714 – 768) Charles Martel (c. 688 – 741) Pepin of Herstal (c. 635 ...
6
votes
1answer
148 views

When was the last time there were border controls, customs, or border patrols inside what is now the contiguous US?

Reading about the complexities of Europe has made me wonder about when American (internal) borders were less porous. Also, were the borders between the 13 colonies completely open? Or did they at ...
9
votes
3answers
9k views

Is it true that Spartan soldiers fought naked?

I was watching a trailer for a movie called 300: Rise of an Empire. I noticed in this movie the Spartan soldiers from the chest and legs are naked. But recently I read in several posts here in the ...
-4
votes
0answers
34 views

Were Thomas Edison and Guglielmo Marconi either Freemasons themselves or involved in some way with Freemasonry?

I just watched a little documentary on Nikola Tesla, and it occurred to me that perhaps the Freemasons were involved with what happened to Mr. Tesla. It has already been proven that several ...
6
votes
1answer
228 views

Which Roman emperor destroyed a weaving machine?

A slave created a revolutionary weaving machine which needed many less slaves to produce fabrics. The machine was so amazing that it was presented to the Emperor of Rome himself. That emperor was very ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

How many illegitimate children did Henry VIII have?

I am aware of Henry Fitzroy, his illegitimate son that he acknowledged whom he had with Bessie Blount. Is there any other confirmed illegitimate children?
7
votes
4answers
3k views

Who invented the first flag?

An answer on this site claims that the first flags were heraldic flags used in battles. But when was this, and for which nations?
23
votes
3answers
31k views

Did Rothschild say this famous quote? If yes, what did he mean by it?

"Give me control of a nation's money and I care not who makes it's laws" — Mayer Amschel Bauer Rothschild This prominent international banker is commonly quoted this. First, did he actually say ...
36
votes
15answers
6k views

Has there ever been a truly multi-sided war?

I was playing StarCraft the other night, and it occurred to me: that game series portrays effectively a 3-way war, where all three factions are fighting the other two with equal ferocity. Obviously, ...
5
votes
2answers
110 views

Are there any written records of Norse mythology dated prior to Christianization?

As I understand it, most of what we know about Norse mythology is based on texts written in sagas by Christians in the late Middle Ages. Do we have any contemporary accounts of Norse mythology from ...
3
votes
1answer
128 views

Did Catherine Howard use some form of birth control?

Catherine Howard, Henry VIII's 5th wife was sexually experienced before marrying the king. She was also accused of having an affair with the king's groom while married to the king. She obviously had ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

When was Susa first mentioned in written documents?

"Susa was a principal city of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires (capital of the Elamites) and was originally known to the Elamites as 'Susan’ or 'Susun’. The Greek name for the city was Sousa ...

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