All Questions

8
votes
3answers
158 views

What was unreasonable about Austria's ultimatum to Serbia?

There are actually three questions. First Question: It is often stated, especially in English-speaking media, that the terms of the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia 1914 were unreasonable. Sometimes the ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

Why did Russia inherit the USSR status as a permanent member of the UN Security Council with veto power?

Russian Federation was certainly the biggest component after the collapse of USSR. However, I don't quite understand why the very valuable geopolitical position as a permanent member of UN Security ...
1
vote
1answer
107 views

Could invocation and revocation of bastardry be used to manipulate primogeniture?

Primogeniture: The legal custom for the firstborn and only the firstborn to inherit the bulk of the estate, especially indivisible property. Bastard: An illegitimate child without the right to ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

When did the Chinese begin using night soil as fertilizer?

Farmers in China, Japan and Korea use human waste as fertilizer. But farmers in other parts of Asia where the main crop is paddy rice, like Thailand and Malaysia, do not. Some sources (like King ...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

High Quality, Primary Source on Troop Movements and Losses in Operation Barbarossa [closed]

I'm searching for a primary source on troop movements and losses in Operation Barbarossa. I've found one source, but it doesn't give any details about the source for the information, just "Army Doctor ...
3
votes
4answers
1k views

Why were rockets not popular as part of artillery until 20th century?

Why were rockets not extensively used throughout the world like cannon until the 20th century? Maybe one may ask the reason for pointing out 20th century. I guess it's fair enough after thinking about ...
3
votes
1answer
116 views

In a Nazi concentration, labor, or death camp, what was a “'sale' Appel”?

I have listened to 100+ hours of testimonies by Holocaust survivors. Those who were in concentration, labor, or death camps invariably described the brutal roll calls known in German as Appels. ...
6
votes
2answers
138 views

Were Uncles referred to by surname in Victorian England?

Merry Christmas, everybody! And speaking of Christmas ... In Charles Dickens' novelette, A Christmas Carol, the main character Ebeneezer Scrooge is referred to several times by others as "Uncle ...
6
votes
3answers
216 views

Oldest appearance of “brand names” in history?

I was watching a documentary about the Ulfberht swords from Scandinavia, and one thing caught my attention: it mentioned that these swords were made over a range of time and location that was broad ...
7
votes
2answers
356 views

Were there historical examples of “citizen's arrest” concept in history independent of British common law?

I know that the concept of "citizen's arrest" in USA originated from British common law. It seems that in a lot of countries listed in Wiki are ones that have the same origin of that law, since they ...
3
votes
0answers
89 views

What were the FBI's motives for wanting to discredit MLK?

J. Edgar Hoover's FBI had a vendetta against Martin Luther King, Jr. They wiretapped him, threatened to expose his sexual misconduct, accused him of Communist sympathies, and even went so far as to ...
1
vote
1answer
95 views

What machine technology did the Egyptians have to build the great pyramids?

Reading the "Account of Egypt" by Herodotus, it says of the great pyramid of "Cheops" (Macauley translation): This pyramid was made after the manner of steps which some called "rows" and others ...
7
votes
1answer
72 views

Inflation Rate in Spain and Portugal during 16th century

What was the yearly/monthly inflation rate in Spain and Portugal during 16th century? Is there data for the amount of silver or gold possessed by the crowns during that period? How much did it ...
12
votes
2answers
832 views

When was slavery abolished in Russia?

It is usually agreed that the Russian serfdom which was abolished in the mid-19th century originated in the 16th century as a form of martial law needed for armed campaigns and was especially ...
5
votes
5answers
1k views

Were cavalry used in first World War?

Due to the nature of trench warfare, a cavalry or a horse-back squad would’ve been rather useless in the war. But, I also know that countries had not anticipated trench warfare – they didn’t know that ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Use of war elephants in Egypt

In a discussion with a friend, we came up with this topic. We know that Indians, Carthaginians and Persians were famous for their use of war elephants in ancient warfare. But the games like Age of ...
10
votes
1answer
984 views

Average height of Ancient Roman Men and Women?

On a field trip to Philadelphia as a child I visited Betsy Ross' house. I was only 11 at the time and yet my head almost reached the ceiling. The tour guide said that Americans used to be shorter than ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

In British heraldry, what happens when a woman with a coat of arms marries someone without?

I'm aware this isn't very time-specific, and not sure if the right SE, but what happens when a woman who belongs to a noble family and has a coat of arms, marries someone without a coat of arms etc.?
4
votes
1answer
284 views

What degree of choice did slaves have over their sexual autonomy?

What degree of choice did chattel slaves in the United States of America1have over their sexual autonomy? Was this codified in any law? 1. Assuming scope is the USA, given the source of the Roots TV ...
7
votes
1answer
167 views

To what extent was Prohibition supported by the American public?

I read an answer here that said the prohibition was imposed on cities against their will. A bit of research on Google seem to say that it was pushed through because people didn't realize even wine ...
5
votes
3answers
837 views

Why was the 1944 surrender of 20,000 Germans on the Western Front remarkable?

I remember very well those days last September when we first heard the rumor that General Elster would surrender to the 99th Division, no one would believe it. "20,000 German troops and their ...
-1
votes
1answer
71 views

How did Lincoln legitimize the constitutionality of his Emancipation Proclamation? [closed]

How did he convince the south to legitimize the emancipation proclamation?
7
votes
1answer
193 views

Was slavery really on the way out in the antebellum USA?

Gail Jarvis, in an encomium to the Dunning School writes: William A. Dunning fervently opposed slavery but his reading of the trends of the times led him to the conclusion that the institution ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

Which French aristocrats were guillotined face-up, if any?

There is a myth that Robespierre was guillotined faced-up (he wasn't); but it raises the question of which aristocrats or disgraced revolutionaries were provably guillotined face-up during the period ...
10
votes
1answer
974 views

What are those X in top of the flag?

Well, I was wondering. What are those crosses in the top of the flag when we visualize military battleplans? For instance, take a look in a map of the Battle for El Alamein: The Free French ...
13
votes
2answers
1k views

How were dagger axes used in battle?

During the Chinese warring states, weapons knowns as dagger axes were used and there is a wide body of evidence that those were common at one time -- so so I believe. Is there any record of fighting ...
3
votes
1answer
94 views

Were the Puritans for a State Church?

In a book titled America's Providential History it states on page 84 that The major Puritan weakness was their holding to the idea of a State Church. They saw nothing wrong with a National ...
9
votes
4answers
453 views

Isn't there any positive legacy of the Mongolian occupation in Russia?

In the BBC radio 4 series The Wild East, the history of Russia after the Mongolian occupation is described as if all the bad things happend subsequently had been caused by the legacy of that era. ...
-1
votes
5answers
203 views

Why was there no solution found to Soviet famines and near-famines? [closed]

One thing I never understood about the Soviet Union were the famines and near-famines; those that were not explicitly engineered by the regime like Holodomor. How could a nuclear power suffer from ...
8
votes
2answers
198 views

Is there any evidence of post-landbridge travel across the Bering Strait?

During the era of the landbridge across the Bering Strait, evidence suggests that people traveled from Asia to North America by foot, becoming the first humans in the Americas and the ancestors of the ...
8
votes
6answers
325 views

Why was not Greek alphabet adopted by other languages given the Greek influence?

Most of western languages adopt the Latin alphabet with minor variations. Arabic letters are adopted by quite a few other languages. The same is true for Eastern Europe with Cyrillic letters. Why was ...
0
votes
2answers
104 views

What was the official policy of British administration about the integration of Indian Princely States in 1947?

What direction was given in Indian Independence Act, 1947 about the political integration of Princely States during the partition of India? What policy was introduced by the British authority about ...
1
vote
1answer
196 views

Pennsylvania is not a state, it is a Commonwealth. Why? [closed]

Why is Pennsylvania a Commonwealth and not a state?
13
votes
4answers
3k views

Why M.K. Gandhi preferred Nehru for Prime Minister candidate and not Sardar Patel?

I've heard different stories on why Sardar Patel was not selected for PM post. Some says it was Gandhi who opted Nehru over Patel, whereas some suggests it was Sardar Patel who stepped back from PM ...
-2
votes
2answers
134 views

When did the nobles of Europe revert to being “ordinary” citizens? [closed]

From what I've read about citizens of the Roman republic and early empire; the privileges they enjoyed, appear to have been somewhat similar to those of later medieval nobility (separate legal status, ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Ressources on non European heraldry and flags? [closed]

I was wondering if there was some good resources about non European heraldry, flags and symbols like this one. My researches yield no good results. I'm specifically interest in the symbols of the ...
6
votes
1answer
175 views

Impact of the Berlin Wall to GDR

"No one has the intention of erecting a wall!" - Walter Ulbricht, June 15,1961. The Wall was erected anyway, because more than 2.6 million East Germans escaped to West Berlin or West Germany from ...
1
vote
1answer
96 views

Division of Rome and Its Eventual Decline

What was the effect of dividing Rome into three separate administrative states around 44BC? How did this contribute to the fall of the empire?
-4
votes
1answer
45 views

Are Jefferson and Madison Jacksonians?

There is no written words about whether the two presidents are Jacksonian or followers of Andrew Jackson? And If so, I be very curious why they chose to be Jacksonians and left the Republican Party to ...
8
votes
3answers
750 views

To what degree did women participate in the air war during WW2?

I read that Lydia Vladimirovna Litvyak and Katya Budanova, the latter is in the above picture, were fighter pilots in the Soviet Air Force during World War II. Since I cannot find other fighter ...
2
votes
1answer
43 views

Who said “Nature that framed us of four elements … doth teach us all to have aspiring minds.”?

Who said “Nature, that framed us of four elements, Warring within our breasts for regiment, Doth teach us all to have aspiring minds.”? According to the Web, you'd think it was Machiavelli, but my ...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

Marbury vs Madison, what about other midnight judges?

After reading about it, I still have confusion as to what happened to the other midnight judges that Adams appointed. If the Supreme Court had the power to refuse to give Marbury his commission ...
6
votes
2answers
347 views

Was Nicholas II Romanov the last king of Poland?

Nicholas II Romanov, the last Emperor of All-Russia, used also (among many others) titles: Grand Prince of Lithuania, and King of Poland. The Wikipedia states he was "a titular" King of Poland. In ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

What was the ideological and philosophical underpinnings of World War II? [closed]

What was the ideological and philosophical underpinnings of World War II? How does imperialism fit into the causes of the war?
18
votes
7answers
2k views

Who was responsible for the partition of India?

Who was responsible for the partition of India? Did it happen due to Mohammed Ali Jinnah or Mahatma Gandhi? Or were the British of the view that the country needed to be divided?
19
votes
3answers
4k views

Why did Saladin show kindness to Richard I?

Why did Saladin, when Richard the Lionhearted was sick with a fever, send him a gift of fruit? Or when Richard's horse was killed in battle, he sent a steed to be led to his camp?
0
votes
1answer
257 views

On Washington's Farewell Address

Here is a question from CollegeBoard's practice APUSH exam... I'm having trouble answering it. Washington's Farewell warned against the dangers of international alliances and the formation of ...
11
votes
4answers
913 views

What are the French gains after the American Revolutionary War

Did France gain anything significant (territories or other concessions) at the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War? I tried to look up for it, but what I found were very minor (Senegal in ...
29
votes
8answers
5k views

Why did Britain and France not declare war against the Soviet Union when it invaded Poland in WW2?

At the beginning of WW2, although they were slow in actually attacking Germany, Britain and France did declare war against it after Germany invaded Poland. The reason for this was the treaty where ...
-4
votes
0answers
44 views

Why do post-war Hollywood WWII-themed movies ignore Japan? [migrated]

According to Wikipedia, of 13 new US-made WW2-themed war movies for 2014, only one is about fighting Japan. In fact, Wikipedia tallies 41 of these US-made or co-produced WW2-themed productions since ...

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