5
votes
0answers
121 views

What were the factors that caused debtors' prison to disappear in most parts of the world in the 20th century?

Debtors' prison is a prison for people who are unable to pay debt. As recently as the mid 19th century, it was a common way to deal with unpaid debt in Western Europe. Debtors' prison started to ...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

What is the history of Research and Development laboratories?

When did Research and Development laboratories (R&D labs) emerge? What was the institutional and intellectual context? Have they undergone major changes in their nature? What role have R&D ...
7
votes
3answers
663 views

How did the Dutch East India Company (VOC) have so much revenue when they only control small part of Indonesia?

According to this, the VOC only controlled some ports, cities (like Batavia/Jakarta) and its surrounding. Yet, it seems to be a very successful corporation, mostly benefiting from the natural ...
6
votes
3answers
342 views

How were mounted infantry (like dragoons) used in battle?

During the Napoleonic Wars, Some troops performed as "mounted infantry", i.e. they rode horses to move, but dismounted and fought like infantry. Dragoons are usually given as examples. How was this ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

what city was unix invented in? [closed]

Unix operating system (and the C language) was developed at Bell Labs by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie in 1970. What city did they invent it in?
3
votes
3answers
458 views

How did Castro gain control over the Cuban military and police?

The Cuban revolution was won by only a few hundred revolutionaries. But to run a state, especially an undemocratic one, you need to have control over the monopoly on violence. But enforcing a ...
16
votes
3answers
945 views

Why is the United States the only developed country whose labour laws leave most up to the employer? [closed]

I read this post: "Bad Facts About The USA". It says that the United States, Lesotho, Swaziland and New Guinea are the only countries in the world not to mandate paid leave for mothers of newborns. ...
7
votes
1answer
217 views

Was Ashoka motivated more by economics rather than religion in giving up war?

Is there any evidence to support the idea that Ashoka's aversion to war might have been due to inflationary economics rather than religion or remorse? Such as say the degradation in the value of coins ...
3
votes
2answers
105 views

When did the <input> tag come about, and in what web browser? [closed]

I realize that the <isindex> tag came first, but which browser was the first to support the <input> tag and when?
3
votes
1answer
121 views

M-1 rifle ammo and grenade invasion ration

How many rounds did US Army infantry carry on a beach landing? One belt of 10, 8 round clips? two belts? How many grenades?
8
votes
1answer
618 views

How big was the Golden Horde?

When one speaks of a horde, one usually thinks of an overwhelming number of people. However, the word horde comes from the Mongol Golden Horde, which I heard was frequently outnumbered in its ...
4
votes
2answers
147 views

What were the advantages of dual power in the beginning of Castro's Cuba

When discussing Castro's rise to power it occurred to me that he, Castro, was the one who initiated the dual power from January 1959 to November 1959, I have been struggling to find sources as to why ...
1
vote
2answers
111 views

What were the reasons for the Federal Art Project?

From August 29, 1935, until June 30, 1943 United States promote what they called Federal Art Project. Reputed to have created more than 200,000 separate works, FAP artists created posters, ...
5
votes
2answers
736 views

Why did Frederick the Great do so much worse against the Russians than against his other enemies in the Seven Years' War?

Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, made a name for himself and Prussia in the Seven Years' War, winning key battles against the French and Austrians at long odds. He won the battle of Rossbach ...
0
votes
1answer
399 views

Was the Dargah Shrine at Ajmer built over a Hindu temple?

This article points that the popular Ajmer Sufi Shrine (Dargah) of Khwaja Chisti in India was built on a demolished Hindu Temple (Varaha Temple). What are the historical sources for such a claim? The ...
6
votes
1answer
294 views

Who was in charge of the Barysaw massacre (20 October 1941)?

I'm looking for information about the Barysaw Massacre of 20 October 1941. Who preformed it and who was in charge of this operation?
5
votes
2answers
162 views

The evolution of glove handness in falconry

I was led to believe that falconers (in Europe?) always used a glove on the left hand to handle birds of prey. However, this image show Mongol with birds on their right hands. So, how has the the ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

When was first security screen door instaled in Seoul metro

My task is to document Seouls metro history. However, I'm from Czech Republic which limits selection of sites I can get data from. (I don't speak Korean, and google translate usually fails). Also, ...
12
votes
2answers
268 views

What do we know about the organizational structure of the Library of Alexandria?

The Royal Library of Alexandria is estimated to have had over half a million documents and house about 100 scholars, according to this article. This would suggest a fairly decentralized archiving ...
3
votes
1answer
570 views

Why did the welfare state succeed in Bismarck Germany but lagged in 20th-century Britain?

Otto von Bismarck pioneered the welfare state in Germany and Bismarck was/is greatly respected by Germans. Pre-World War I British Liberal Party made welfare reforms after the 1906 general election. ...
8
votes
2answers
431 views

How and why did Polish rule over the Ukraine “downwardly deviate” from Lithuanian rule?

In the Middle Ages, "Lithuania" ruled over not only the modern Lithuania, but also modern Belarus and large parts of the Ukraine. The Ukrainiains seemed to accept Lithuanian rule for over two ...
1
vote
2answers
412 views

What was the relationship between ancient Egyptians and Hebrews in documented hieroglyphs? [closed]

Are there any documented sources about what happened in ancient Egypt? Particularly the relationship between Egyptians and Hebrews, as mentioned? E.G. were they best Friends or were so and so?
5
votes
1answer
283 views

Were the heavy war reparations on Germany after World War I the main cause of its hyperinflation in 1923?

World War I victors imposed severe war reparations on Germany. When Germany defaulted, France invaded the Ruhr which was the most heavily industrialized area in Germany to force reparations ...
2
votes
1answer
172 views

What were the civic privileges created for the Jews by Porcius Festus?

Festus inherited all of the problems of his predecessor in regard to the Roman practice of creating civic privileges for Jews. Only one other issue bedeviled his administration, the controversy ...
10
votes
1answer
139 views

How long was a journey “from the Varangians to the Greeks?”

Textbooks about Russian history often discuss the importance of trade routes "from the Varangians to the Greeks," which allowed ships to pass from the Baltic to the Black Sea using a network of ...
18
votes
2answers
466 views

Why did modern “Romania” remain the most “Roman” part of the Balkans?

The so-called "Romanians" are the Vlachs who inhabited the territory just north of the Danube in Roman times, and today. Wallachia (home of the Vlachs), represented the outer limit or Roman expansion. ...
5
votes
1answer
83 views

When was the british rail strike when the workers fought by following the regulations?

I once heard about a strike in british railways. The workers decided to follow strictly the law regulations and that created chaos and that's how they proved the law was wrong. I can't find any ...
6
votes
1answer
134 views

Who stood for the Roman consulship in absentia?

I'm trying to find precedents for Caesar's request in 50 BC to stand for the consulship in absentia (i.e. without returning to Rome as a private citizen), which was ultimately refused by the Senate. ...
0
votes
1answer
69 views

Why was there an autumn recess in Britain in 1641?

Was it because the government just wanted to take a break in recess? Or was it because of conflicts? Wikipedia mentions that in October 1641, the Irish rebellion occurred, but it doesn’t mention that ...
9
votes
1answer
166 views

What is a “Schwedenschanze” on an 1830's map of Eastern Bavaria?

The modern translation by BING is Swedish ski jump or Swedish hill, depending on whether or not I insert a space, but this seems very unlikely in that time period. The structure is clearly man-made, ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Is there any evidence Chairman Mao restricted or confiscated guns?

It's often said that Chairman Mao removed the guns from the peasantry that he armed. Is this substantiated in any reliable source?
2
votes
2answers
117 views

What was the significance of the Mississipi River on the Civil War and Westward Expansion?

I have a friend who has been given an assignment to write a paper arguing persuasively which river in the world is the "largest". Obviously, some people argue it is the Nile and some, the Amazon (most ...
9
votes
3answers
20k views

What happened to the wealth of the Rothschild banking family? [closed]

The Rothschild family was possibly the richest banking family in human history. Given the power of compounding over time and the large principal sum that they start with, they should easily be the ...
7
votes
2answers
441 views

Why did science flourish in Germany after the First World War?

It occurred to me that Germany was extremely productive in (at least) physics in the first thirty years of the twentieth century, and especially in the period between the end of the First World War ...
9
votes
1answer
160 views

Legal grounds of functioning of Third Reich concentration camps

I know for sure that repressions in the USSR at thirties had been en masse illegal in the sense that the laws existed at that period of time there's no word about, say, executing people without any ...
3
votes
1answer
258 views

What advantage did Napoleon gain by attacking and antagonizing the Catholic Church?

In 1796, Napoleon invaded Italy and defeated the papal army. The French troops took Pope VI prisoner and he died in captivity seven months later. The risks to a politician in antagonizing such a ...
2
votes
1answer
282 views

Why did Xerxes choose Hellespont over Bosphorus?

The total length of the Bosphorus bridge is 1560 m [1]. The total length of the proposed bridge over Hellespont is 2196 m [2]. Even if there's a point on the Hellespont where the distance between the ...
2
votes
2answers
114 views

Sect in England in the 18th century

As far as I know, the church at the time strictly forbade all heretical manifestations and was very strong. So I could not think sects existed at that time. But reading the book by Victor Hugo, "The ...
1
vote
1answer
115 views

Could invocation and revocation of bastardry be used to manipulate primogeniture?

Primogeniture: The legal custom for the firstborn and only the firstborn to inherit the bulk of the estate, especially indivisible property. Bastard: An illegitimate child without the right to ...
4
votes
1answer
45 views

Did Søren Norby ever visit Iceland?

Søren Norby was the Seignor of Iceland 1515-1517. However, I can't find any information on whether he actually ever visited Iceland, had any actual powers in this role or if the position was a ...
1
vote
1answer
172 views

In 1492, what was the shortest distance you could travel to discover the new world from the old world? [closed]

In 1492, when Christopher Columbus brought the new world to the attention of the old world. What was the extent of the known world, and what was the shortest distance someone could have travelled to ...
1
vote
0answers
103 views

Where there any major battles between Australian Aborigines and English Colonists? [closed]

The English were hostile to most of the natives near their colonies. However, I can't seem to find any evidence as to whether or not the Aborigines partook in any battle against British colonists in ...
3
votes
0answers
107 views

How do historians treat gossip?

How do historians deal with information that has no other sources than gossip? I mean facts (or "facts") that are not covered by primary sources, but are widely known from gossip. Usually this ...
6
votes
2answers
736 views

Did American forces specifically target officers during the revolutionary war?

There is a story that says that American revolutionaries fought unconventionally against the British, including targeting their officers, which was not done between European forces. Is this true or ...
-4
votes
1answer
92 views

When did the Charismatic Movement start? [closed]

When did the christian Charismatic Movement start?
7
votes
1answer
288 views

Did France actually intend to colonise West Australia and were any resources assigned to this objective prior to 1829?

The Wikipedia article about the History of Western Australia mentions that the British set up a military garrison at King George Sound in 1826 and established a colony on the Swan River in 1829 in ...
-4
votes
1answer
140 views

Is that true that somebody was punished by the Catholic Church for believing that a fly had six feet? [closed]

It is often claimed that Catholic Church punished scientists who relied on the experiment rather than just believing certain approved thinkers. As an example, it is often put forward that in one of ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Gibbon Edward biography in czech or slovak language

I searched something about Edward Gibbon in czech or slovak language, but I wasn´t successful, because everything that I found was in english and also it was in UK. Nothing in Slovak or Czech ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Origins of Baptist colonists

What part of England did the Baptist colonists come from to North America? As in the regions of England, Wales or Scotland.
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Why did Soviet Union economy grow fast in the 1950's-1960's?

Communist economic systems self-implode. Communism today has been recognized that it is bad for economic progress. There is no dispute that Communism makes countries poor based on what has happened in ...

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