6
votes
1answer
130 views

Which floating-point representation did Konrad Zuse's Z1 use?

Wikipedia notes: "The Z1 was a 22-bit floating point value adder and subtracter". But the specific format used is nowhere to be seen.
1
vote
0answers
44 views

What were the major objections that Augustine had with Jerome's translation of the Septuagint?

I was having a discussion with someone who insisted that one of the major reasons I thought that Augustine objected to Jerome's translation of the Septuagint was completely not true. He argued that ...
-3
votes
1answer
281 views

Are there other ancient human rights (surely in its ancient consept) documents like the Cyrus Cylinder (c. 500BC)? [closed]

Wikipedia says: "The Cyrus' Cylinder gained new prominence in the late 1960s when the last Shah of Iran called it "the world's first charter of human rights".[90] The cylinder was a key symbol of ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

Inflation After Executive Order 6102 (FDR Leaving GoldStandard)

I'm looking at this image which implies that the US leaving the Gold Standard started revival after the Great Depression. I'm thinking that it could all be explained with rapid inflation due to the ...
2
votes
1answer
74 views

What does 'trade in' mean in this article on the Westway project?

A little background so you know where we are at. I'm doing a paper concerning the Westway project* specifically the period immediately before the collapse of the project in which hundreds of ...
1
vote
1answer
191 views

Was it Stalin behind the idea of universal elections in the USSR?

Recently I have read an article that claimed that Stalin wanted to introduce competitive, alternative elections in the USSR while the regional secretaries were strongly against the idea and pushed for ...
4
votes
4answers
2k views

Is this true that the Soviet Army soldiers had no helmets in the beginning of WW2?

Is this true that the Soviet Army was so poorly equipped by the WW2 that soldiers had no helmets?
5
votes
1answer
152 views

What were some of the complications of Marshall Plan?

What were some of the complications that were revolved around the Marshall Plan? Were the Soviets involved in any way?
4
votes
3answers
263 views

Earliest examples of “pop culture” in history

What is the earliest evidence of pop culture/viral trends throughout history? By pop culture I mean music, theater etc... Basically "gangam style" of the olden days. I understand that any sort of ...
4
votes
1answer
450 views

Did Marie Leszczyńska, queen of France, have any lovers?

"Always going to bed, always pregnant, always giving birth" said Marie Leszczyńska, queen of France. Marie was chosen to be wife of Louis XV for two reasons. First of all, she was ready to get ...
6
votes
3answers
224 views

Why did Churchill accept the Order of the Garter in 1953?

Churchill had refused the Order of the Garter in 1945, quipping that he couldn't accept the garter from the king after the people gave him the boot. But in 1953 he relented and accepted the honour? Is ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

What does the Latin “prorex” mean in reference to Louis II de Bourbon?

On the cover of the Paris edition of Raymund Martin's Pugio Fidei, it states, AD SERENISSIMUM REGIÆ STIRPIS PRIMUM PRINCIPEM LUDOVICUM BORBONIUM CONDÆUM BURDEGALÆ ET AQUITANIÆ PROREGEM ...
1
vote
2answers
118 views

What does “the anointed of the Lord” mean?

While reading the Cyrus the Great in the Wikipedia, I found the mentioned sentence in this paragraph: Cyrus the Great respected the customs and religions of the lands he conquered.[13] It is said ...
4
votes
1answer
57 views

Who is Ludovico Bourbon?

On the cover of the Paris edition of Raymund Martin's Pugio Fidei, it states, "AD SERENISSIMUM REGIÆ STIRPIS PRIMUM PRINCIPEM LUDOVICUM BORBONIUM CONDÆUM BURDEGALÆ ET AQUITANIÆ PROREGEM ...
-7
votes
1answer
109 views

Who really put to flight American hostages in America's embassy in Tehran in 1979? [closed]

Was it by Canadians or CIA? That's all! I think it doesn't need more contexts as it is a very clear question. Please when you try to answer ( if you have an answer ) forget movies and imaginary ...
9
votes
3answers
3k views

Why M.K. Gandhi preferred Nehru for Prime Minister candidate and not Sardar Patel?

I've heard different stories on why Sardar Patel was not selected for PM post. Some says it was Gandhi who opted Nehru over Patel, whereas some suggests it was Sardar Patel who stepped back from PM ...
7
votes
2answers
436 views

Was the Minoan civilization warlike?

Generally, is believed that the Minoan civilization on Crete was peaceful and their culture was more like a culture of peace than a culture of war. But I've read an article lately ...
7
votes
1answer
48 views

Where would I find Graham Bell's kite experiment data?

I'm looking for experimental data (lift, drag, pull, etc...) of Graham Bell's tetrahedral kite. As he was a scientist and inventor I thought that he might have written some quantitative data down on ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

How compare the rights and conditions of the American slaves to those of Russian serfs?

How compare the rights and conditions of the 19-th century American slaves to those of the 19-th century Russian serfs?
7
votes
3answers
137 views

Where can I find digitised versions of Japanese war documents in original Japanese?

I was wondering where can I find digitised versions of Japanese war documents in original Japanese? I can read Japanese but I cannot seem to find any primary sources that relate to the Japanese army ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Fiji and the Indian Community [closed]

What was the original military coup staged by the Fijian officers in the late 1980s to sideline the Indians living in Fiji from the country's political system ?
7
votes
2answers
99 views

How did the Chinese help Khrushchev?

I read this in the source cited in this answer Initially the Soviet assistance in China’s nuclear programme was limited to the civil nuclear energy field. However, Moscow’s attitude shifted in ...
5
votes
4answers
532 views

What does “Brown-Bread Eater” mean when used as an insult?

The American Pageant (Bailey, Kennedy, Cohen, 2006) on p. 507 remarks: ...regular Republicans denounced Greeley as an atheist, a communist, a free-lover, a vegetarian, a brown-bread eater... ...
11
votes
1answer
579 views

Transatlantic Zeppelin Flight Time

In the 1930s, the zeppelins LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin and LZ 129 Hindenburg made frequent transatlantic voyages. They had a top speed of around 85 mph, but I doubt they could manage that throughout the ...
11
votes
2answers
533 views

What was the situation of homosexuals in the early Soviet Union?

Between 1917 and 1930, homosexuality was decriminalised in the Soviet Union. From the Wikipedia article on LGBT history in Russia: The Russian Communist Inessa Armand publicly endorsed both ...
10
votes
5answers
6k views

Why have officers in the U.S. army tended to “top out” at the level of Major?

In the U.S. army, something like 75%-80% of newly-commissioned Second Lieutenants are promoted to First Lieutenant (around age 25), perhaps 75%-80% of First Lieutenants are promoted to Captain (ages ...
4
votes
1answer
47 views

Past US invovlement in Iran and Iraq

If I remember correctly that the U.S did switch sides between sides supporting both Iraq and Iran at some point due to some sort of Cold War Reason. So my question is did the U.S. back empowerment of ...
4
votes
2answers
160 views

Motivation Behind the USSR Assisting China's Nuclear Program

What motivated the USSR to assist China with the development of Nuclear Weapons? Why would the USSR want China to have this technology during the 1950s and early 1960s? What did they get out of this ...
8
votes
1answer
150 views

The history of the idea that lack of moral censure leads to decline

"The decline of a civilization has long been linked, anecdotally, to less moral censure and a decline in manners (manners being self, usually-moral censorship)." (Brock Adams, commenting an earlier ...
3
votes
3answers
549 views

Why and how did some Germans choose to join the Stasi (Staatssicherheit)?

I'm wondering; What motivated some Germans to join the Stasi or to support the Stasi? Were there any common backgrounds among those who did so apart from living or being from the East? Why did so ...
5
votes
1answer
89 views

Are there non-russian sources related to how Rurikid Dynasty became rulers of Russia?

Most of the information - at least as taught in Russia - related to how Rurik Dynasty became rulers of Rus is based on "Повѣсть времяньныхъ лѣтъ" ("Tale of Bygone Years", aka "Primary Chronicle"). Is ...
4
votes
1answer
65 views

Psychology in the 19th century

I have read about the Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo, and noticed that starting from 1829 they taught psychology and ethics. I wonder what the 19th century psychology would be like given that even ...
5
votes
1answer
72 views

Was Pawiak prison in Warsaw originally for political or general prisoners?

I was reading about Pawiak prison in Warsaw and the general consensus appears to be that it was built between 1829 and 1835 during a time of Russian occupation. It seems clear that after the January ...
6
votes
1answer
220 views

Examples of censorship causing economic decline

I am writing a blog post about knowledge banning, either by state censorship or by self-imposed censorship, like the US Comics Code Authority of the 20th century. My focus is moral censorship, ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Are “I, II, III, …” versions of archaeological versioning of layers unique to Troy?

When reading about archaeological research of Troy, one can see that archeologist distinguish between different discrete numbered layers (Troy I => Troy IX). Is that a standard approach in archeology ...
4
votes
1answer
97 views

Rulers of Rome - Caesar and Pompei

Why is Pompei Magnus' name not lauded as much as Caesar's is as a Roman ruler ,considering Magnus was the one who ran Rome in the first place ?
2
votes
4answers
77 views

Know of any historical tales in which a man kills the woman he loves as a sacrifice in the name of duty, religion, etc.? [closed]

Know of any historical tales in which a man kills the woman he loves as a sacrifice in the name of duty, religion, etc.? I'll take mythological tales too, but for the purposes of the novel I'm ...
3
votes
3answers
328 views

Why did George H. W. Bush select Dan Quayle as his running mate in 1988?

I've just been revisiting some quotes from Dan Qualyle. For example: I believe we are on an irreversible trend toward more freedom and democracy – but that could change. and We are ready ...
7
votes
1answer
174 views

Who kept noble prisoners captured in battle?

During the Hundred Years War era, noblemen captured in a battle were normally held for ransom. In such a case, who got to keep the prisoner, provide him lodgings, and receive the ransom? Was it the ...
-1
votes
1answer
83 views

Nymphodorus of Syracuse

Is there an online version of his history? I am actually trying to assemble some information about a slave rebellion led by one Drimakos and Nymphodorus is one of the ancient writers who mentioned ...
8
votes
1answer
398 views

Where did the design of the US Colonel insignia come from?

I've been trying to figure out why the insignia for a colonel in the U.S. military is an eagle. Obviously, there is the connection with the seal of the united states. But why is it used by the colonel ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Were there rules about the number of retainers for the Achaemenid Empire?

In Rome, magistrates (and later the emperors too) each had a fixed number of lictors, according to the rank of the office they held. Is a similar regulation of the number of retainers according to ...
6
votes
5answers
753 views

How did a nomadic minority group the Manchus come to rule over China?

The population of the Chinese empire was about 120 times larger than the Jurchen tribe, who later renamed themselves to Manchus. Yes, the Manchus were very skilled warriors and the late Ming dynasty ...
8
votes
1answer
220 views

Horace Walpole on Richard III

Thus reads Wikipedia: In Historic Doubts on the Life and Reign of King Richard III (1768), Walpole defended Richard III against the common belief that he murdered the Princes in the Tower. In ...
2
votes
0answers
77 views

Historically accurate films about the English Civil War [closed]

Last night I saw Cromwell which is good drama but absolutely grossly inaccurate. Do you know of other good films on the subject that do more justice to the history?
4
votes
0answers
55 views

Proportion of population that works in agriculture (1000 - today)

I wonder what the proportion of people was that worked in agriculture (growing food and raising livestock, not processing food in a factory plant) throughout the past centuries in Europe and also, to ...
4
votes
1answer
99 views

When did Harvard give its last entrance exam?

I saw this article pointing out how different college admissions used to be, pre World War II. Entrance exams are still used around the world today but it seems like no American universities give out ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

What was Vyshinsky's position about extrajudical repressions in the USSR?

Vyshinsky was the prosecutor-general of the USSR who is mosly known for his participation in the Moscow show trials of the 1930s. But what was his position regarding the extrajudical repressions?
8
votes
1answer
130 views

How were heavier objects weighed in antiquity/middle ages?

How were heavier objects weighed in antiquity or the middle ages? Were balances simply scaled up in size with appropriately larger weights? Did people know how much an elephant or even an ox actually ...
3
votes
1answer
175 views

What is “quarter column”

I'm watching a documentary on the Boer War and apparently, during the Victorian era, the British Army commonly employed their infantry in "quarter column". I've tried to look it up, but can't find ...

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