4
votes
1answer
128 views

What was the custom/consensus regarding irregular combatants 19th century?

Immediately prior to the battle of Sedan, the German soldiers who captured the town of Bazeilles executed a number of armed civilians who had been firing on German troops that day. This happened in ...
3
votes
0answers
73 views

How did Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof end up on the list of prisoners to be released, by Black September?

After seeing the movie The Baader-Meinhof Komplex, I was confused by one part, which was how Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof ended up on the list of prisoners to be released at the 1972 Olympics. ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

Convoy and retreat and attack [closed]

i need some help i am searching for a document about Convoy method and retreat and attack method in navy area for example, for convoy or escort we have 5 method , x and .... does anyone have ? if ...
0
votes
4answers
739 views

Why was the the sack of cities acceptable?

When reading history, it seems that the sacking(killing citizens ) of a city after a successful siege was a common and accepted practice... Why was it acceptable?
-7
votes
2answers
991 views

Why women in medieval India was topless? [closed]

I heard that women in medieval India was topless upto 1200 AD.. Why ? India was developed in many areas on that time , but women were topless.. Why ?
-3
votes
1answer
126 views

Croatia's reparations to Serbia after WWII [closed]

How Croatia avoid to pay reparations to Serbia after the WWII for something like this?
4
votes
1answer
326 views

What were the effects of US foreign policy in the South East Asian region in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s on states with capitalist economies?

US foreign policy in South East Asia in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s was ostensibly anti-communist. It involved civil and military action in a wide number of countries in this region. Most notably, in ...
9
votes
1answer
315 views

Did Ben Franklin actually make any tofu?

It is well documented that Franklin was interested in tofu, which he called a sort of cheese made from beans, and he got a recipe for making it that he sent on to others. But no source that I have ...
4
votes
2answers
168 views

How did the Scottish lowlands get their Gaelic name?

According to the Wiki page the Gaelic name for the Scottish Lowlands can be translated as, "the place of the foreigner". I'm wondering which foreigners they are referring to. Also, if this actually ...
9
votes
1answer
354 views

How much of the Napoleonic wars were paid by the sale of Louisiana?

in 1803, Napoleon sold French Louisiana to the United States, thus allowing to finance various war campaigns. How do 15 millions dollars compare to the cost of the napoleonic wars between 1803 and ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

The decline of Buddhism in India around the 12th century

How can we explain the fall of Buddhism in India, which is the geographic origin of Buddhism? Were there ever any direct conflicts between Hinduism and Buddhism? From what I understand, the rise ...
7
votes
1answer
143 views

Is taking away decorations of traitors a normal modus operandi?

In the USSR, people convicted of treason were routinely stripped of their State decorations, even when they were honestly earned before the treason (e.g., Власов, Добробабин, Берия). The sentence also ...
5
votes
3answers
325 views

What is known about early history of Judaism?

What do we know about early history of Judaism? Do we know the timeline when these modern traits of modern Judaism developed: 1 Lifestyle restriction that we now find in Torah, such as the ...
-1
votes
1answer
339 views

Who were the 13 persons who voted to choose PM among S Patel and JL nehru [closed]

Who were the 13 persons who voted to choose PM among S Patel and JL Nehru? how many votes did Nehru get?
4
votes
1answer
270 views

At which times did a mainly Jewish sovereign state control Jerusalem?

At which times in history have there been a sovereign mainly Jewish state controlling Jerusalem? The only time in history after the Babylonian exile that I can recall is during the Hasmonean dynasty. ...
4
votes
1answer
391 views

Korean Traditional Clothes for each Dynasty

I searched everywhere but couldn't find a site that provide detailed clothes worn by the people of Korea in ancient time. I would like to search the changes in fashion and costume over time. Here are ...
1
vote
1answer
169 views

What are some of the influences of the Black Plague and its aftermath on the period of Renaissance? [closed]

The period of Renaissance in Europe kicked off after the Black Plague started disappearing. How did the the plague help in igniting the fire of rebirth?
7
votes
1answer
236 views

Why did the Streltsy in Russia have no summer uniform?

As noted in this answer, the typical well-know-from-paintings red coats and hats uniform of Russian Streltsy guard was both a winter and summer uniform. Is there any reason why an (obviously warm, to ...
5
votes
2answers
143 views

Was COMECON involved in economic imperialism and if so, to what extent?

Disclaimer: I am not 100% sure if it was COMECON, it might be another Soviet apparatus. I recall reading about how the Soviet Union forced her Eastern European satellites into very lucrative and ...
6
votes
2answers
322 views

When did Australia declare war on Germany in WWII

In 1939, Australia had not ratified the 1931 Westminster Statute, and so lacked independent foreign policy. Menzies recognised this by saying in 1939, that as Britian was at war with Germany, so ...
2
votes
2answers
197 views

Did Stalin have any designs on Turkey and Greece?

I know of the famous Percentages Agreement between Stalin and Churchill. As is commonly known, Stalin reneged on his promise in regards to Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania which eliminated all British ...
2
votes
1answer
184 views

What is the history of Cartography?

Today's maps rely on overhead surveillance. Wikipedia's history of Cartography lists some key technologies that improved cartography (e.g. telescopes, magnetic compasses, etc.), but doesn't explain ...
16
votes
1answer
338 views

In 19th century India, pre and post Raj, did any private British citizens actually own land in India?

I've never been able to clarify this question. From what I can tell, the land that the British occupied in India was either "owned" (if this is the right term) by the Company during the time of its ...
2
votes
1answer
305 views

UK Tories vs Whigs in the 19th century: broad political classification? [closed]

I realise that it's hard providing a direct parallel to today, but is it roughly fair to say that the Tories were analogous to modern conservatives and the Whigs were closer to modern progressives? ...
3
votes
3answers
149 views

Smoking as a throat cure

In the movie The King's Speech Prince Bertie at some point says his doctors had advised him to smoke, in order to improve his throat's condition. Does this stupid suggestion represent actual medical ...
-2
votes
1answer
124 views

Why did the Sykes-Picot agreement divided the middle east into more than 10 countries? [closed]

France and Britain made a secret arrangement called Sykes-Picot. With this agreement the middle-east was divided. I am not sure what is the main reason why they divide it to more then 10 countries. I ...
6
votes
1answer
128 views

What are the immediate legal effects of rendering a royal branch illegitimate?

I recently came across this video which claims that Edward IV was probably illegitimate, effectively rendering the branch leading to the Windsors also illegitimate. That's quite a bold statement to ...
3
votes
0answers
59 views

Where in Basel was the first Zionist Congress held in 1897?

The Zionist Congresses were held in Basel from 1897 (the first congress) until 1899 (third congress), and many of the congresses after that were also held there. Where in Basel, exactly, was the ...
3
votes
2answers
227 views

Was “the modern cocktail” intended to mask the foul taste of Prohibition-era liquor?

I have long suspected that what we know today as a "cocktail" was invented to mask the taste of bad liquor. Indeed I've found several unsupported assertions to this effect online, generally pointing ...
5
votes
1answer
85 views

Were NC, IL, and VA's latest concurrent constitutions' effective dates coincidental?

The latest Constitutions of North Carolina, Illinois, and Virginia all became effective on the same day (July 1, 1971). Was this coincidental, or was there some coordination going on? If so, why did ...
4
votes
2answers
154 views

Were there in the USSR monasteries decorated with Soviet orders?

Were there in the USSR monasteries decorated with Soviet decorations, particularly, the Order of the Red Banner?
11
votes
1answer
395 views

How did Saudi Arabia become and remain strongly Wahhabi?

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia staunchly follow Wahhabism, a very conservative and strict brand of Islamism that probably is the major factor of Saudi's strict policy and harsh implementation of Sharia. ...
14
votes
2answers
329 views

Three rings (wreaths?) symbol in XIX century Russia

On some buildings in Moscow (and other cities in European part of Russia) there are carvings of three interconnected wreaths. For example, some are on the Pushkin Museum building on Prechistenka: ...
8
votes
1answer
369 views

What was the summer uniform of the streltsy?

The Russian streltsy (shooters) of 17th century are usually depicted in winter uniform wearing fur hats and dress. What was their summer uniform?
3
votes
1answer
216 views

What is the origin/history of the practice of standing up if an elder or respectable is approaching?

It is usually witnessed that whenever someone respectable (parents), of a higher status (king/president) or an elderly approaches e.g. enters the room, people tend to stand-up as a sign of respect. ...
7
votes
1answer
187 views

Who were the “tyrants” that Charles Martel “crushed”?

The second chapter of Einhard says: It was this Charles that crushed the tyrants who claimed to rule the whole Frank land as their own, and that utterly routed the Saracens, when they ...
-2
votes
1answer
149 views

Why did Kazi Lhendup Dorjee Khangsarpa decided to merge Sikkim to India?

Why did Kazi Lhendup Dorjee Khangsarpa decided to merge Sikkim with India? What was his personal gain from the merger? What was Sikkim's gain from the merger?
0
votes
1answer
214 views

African Clicking Language

During a class a friend of mine brought up an African Clicking language. I don't have a lot of information about this. Which language groups in Africa include clicking, and what is known about the ...
14
votes
3answers
1k views

How did the Soviets decide what to annex in WW2?

During and after World War II Soviet Union annexed some countries while others eventually became member states of the Warsaw Pact. What is known about how the Soviets made the decisions about which ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Why did Charles V divide his holdings as he did?

Even as monarchs go, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was one lucky individual. He inherited Austria and the job of Holy Roman Emperor, as well as the Netherlands (including Belgium) through his father, ...
11
votes
3answers
939 views

“More Frenchmen bore arms for the Axis than for the Allies during the Second World War”?

True or false? This is claimed by Andrew Roberts in The Storm of War. Quote: As more Frenchmen bore arms for the Axis than for the Allies during the Second World War, it is unsurprising that ...
19
votes
1answer
434 views

Did anyone predict the existence of the Americas?

According to the answer of this question, Columbus was pretty much unique in his belief that the world was small enough and Asia was big enough to make sailing west to Asia possible. Everyone else ...
7
votes
4answers
2k views

Did Akhenaten's religion influence early Judaism?

There were some claims, for example in the 1st 2 chapters of Moses and Monotheism by Freud, that early Judaism was basically a spin-off of Akhenaten's religion. There are indeed some remarkable ...
8
votes
1answer
262 views

What was the need to call the Estates-General of 1789

I read that in France at the time of the French revolution, the monarch did not have the power to impose taxes on his will alone. Rather he had to call a meeting of the Estates General which would ...
2
votes
2answers
392 views

Legacy of the May 1968 Paris riots

As you may be well aware, France has had a notable number of riots, uprisings and revolutions in the last 250 years or so. I believe it the Fifth-Republic has been in existence for approximately 50 ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

What were the advantages and disadvantages of Mongolian cavalry (compared to European cavalry)?

My understanding is that Mongolian cavalry fought mainly with bows and arrows, that is, missile weapons, in "hit and run" style, while European cavalry fought mainly with "contact" weapons such as ...
-1
votes
1answer
37 views

Jules Verne's book about media [closed]

Since literature board is closed, the best board to ask this question might be here. When I was very little, I remember seeing a review in TV. It was supposed to be a review on movie transpired by ...
6
votes
1answer
425 views

How did the Nuremberg Trials decide whether a guilty defendant was to be sentence to death or life imprisonment?

This page contains a list of Nuremberg defendants, their verdict and sentence. While explanations for lighter sentence (e.g. Dönitz was only sentenced to 10 years) can be found quite easily, many Nazi ...
7
votes
2answers
179 views

Is the position of women as portrayed in the Mad Men series historically accurate?

I found similar questions about a game (closed as off topic), a play (7 upvotes) and a movie (9 upvotes) so I am unsure if this is an acceptable question for this SE. In the Mad Men series, which ...
3
votes
2answers
285 views

Who were the first democratically elected leaders of Russia in history?

On Boris Yeltsin's page in Wikipedia there's the fact that on 12th June, 1991, he was elected by popular vote to the newly created post of President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ...

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