1
vote
1answer
90 views

What was character of Chmielnitski's rise?

What was the character of Chmielnitski's rise? It has started as a private conflict between him and a polish nobel, Aleksander Czapliński. But what was after? And what was the reason to fight when ...
26
votes
2answers
3k views

How beneficial were war bonds to the US during WWII

I've been watching classic cartoon shorts from Disney and Warner Brothers. So many devoted time to encouraging Americans to buy war bonds. Did money collected from war bonds amount to a significant ...
-2
votes
2answers
171 views

Did the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki contribute to Japan's surrender?

Even before the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the war situation had developed not necessarily to Japan's advantage. Allied forces had been taking island after island, and were firebombing ...
18
votes
4answers
3k views

Was the Italian campaign a strategic mistake?

Background In September 1943, the Allied forces invaded Southern Italy in combined amphibious operations in Reggio di Calabria (Operation Baytown), Salerno (Operation Avalanche) and Taranto ...
20
votes
6answers
1k views

How did Islam and Hinduism thrive together in Medieval India?

In countries in the Middle East, Indonesia and many North African countries, the onset of Islamic rulers spread Islam in a rapid manner, eventually wiping off the local religion. However in spite of ...
5
votes
3answers
288 views

Why did ramming reappear then disappear in 1800s shipborn warfare?

This question is twofold. First, why the resurgence of naval ramming and return of rams to naval designs in the second half of the 1800s? Second, why the end to ramming in the 1900s? Can one ...
27
votes
1answer
3k views

How much were telegraphists in the 1950s paid?

I'm doing some research for a small project, and am having some difficulty finding information on telegraphists as a whole. The information I'm trying to find is rather specific, and I can't seem to ...
36
votes
4answers
18k views

Did World War II-era bombs actually whistle?

In WWII-era films and newsreels, aerial bombs are often shown making a whistling sound as they fall; starting high pitched, then decreasing as the bomb approaches the Earth (example here, starting at ...
7
votes
2answers
383 views

Was there a reason Hitler saluted differently to everyone else?

When people think of the nazi salute, the hand is generally out in front, around 45° palm down. Sometimes it would be lower, which I think reinforces that it's a "palm open and down" gesture: ...
4
votes
3answers
163 views

Has there ever been a revolution backed by a royal or a noble against their own family?

We have all seen or heard of common people charge against social injustice but has there ever been a true rebel in the higher Royal or noble society who charged against a regime or a kingdom that is ...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

Why did Uesugi Kenshin never marry? Was it common practice for Japanese Buddhists of the time?

It seems that the famed Sengoku-era lord Uesugi Kenshin never married anybody in his life because he was a devout Buddhist. This seems highly unusual, considering Japanese Buddhists at that time seem ...
12
votes
1answer
199 views

What happened to Muslim spouses who converted to Christianity during the 1923 Graeco-Turkish population exchange?

The Greek - Turkish Population Exchange Convention was signed on 30 January 1923. The population exchange was based on religious identity - involving denaturalization of the Orthodox Christian ...
21
votes
6answers
2k views

Why do minor political parties in the US receive so few votes?

Reading about the election statistics in the United States I was amazed about how few votes are received by the minor parties and their candidates. For example, Gloria La Riva received only 181 votes ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

Questions historians ask that non-historian enthusiasts don't?

Long-time history buff looking to take my game to the next level, so to speak. I am interested both in writing historical/alt-history fiction and maybe doing some podcasts on historical phenomena I ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

What sort of cold weather clothing did they wear on the Ross expedition to the Antarctic?

James Ross led an early expedition to the Antarctic from 1839 to 1843, aboard the ships HMS Erebus and HMS Terror. After his voyage, nearly thirty years passed before the next Antarctic expedition. ...
10
votes
3answers
324 views
0
votes
2answers
106 views

Why did human and civil rights gain a foothold at the time they did? [closed]

Even though the idea of human equal rights has a rather long history, it wasn't a reality up until the late 18th century. Nobles still had more or less absolute power over the lower classes. The lower ...
9
votes
5answers
3k views

Is there any research explicitly contradicting facts in Suvorov's “Icebreaker” book series claiming that Stalin intended to attack Hitler in 1941?

Viktor Suvorov is a somewhat famous ex-GRU spy who defected and wrote a series of books. The most (in)famous and sensational were a series of books on World War II, starting with "Icebreaker", which ...
20
votes
4answers
65k views

Does the number of legs in the air of a horse statue indicate how its rider died?

I have heard that the number of legs a horse has in the air in a statue indicates how the rider died. According to what I have understood: 2 legs in the air: rider died in battle 1 leg in the air: ...
2
votes
2answers
138 views

Were life imprisonment and mental insanity the only reasons a divorce couldn't be granted in early 20th century England?

I was watching a Poirot TV movie which was set to England somewhere around 1930s, and one plot point was that the only reasons a divorce couldn't be granted were that either the husband or the wife ...
3
votes
1answer
166 views

Did the Byzantine Empire use Roman numerals?

Wikipedia says about Byzantine emperor Heraclius that he was responsible for "introducing Greek as the Eastern Empire's official language". If so, is it right to assume that Byzantines used Roman ...
-1
votes
0answers
48 views

GNP during the napoleonic era

It's hard for me to find information about "gross domestic product" and populations in the 18th and 19th century. Especially I would like to know the greatest economic powers in about year 1750 and ...
26
votes
3answers
9k views

How did Europeans first acquire gunpowder?

I know that gunpowder was first invented in China around the 10th century, and it seems that gunpowder likely made its way to Europe via the "Silk Road." However, there doesn't seem to be a ton of ...
33
votes
3answers
5k views

Was there a plan to use nuclear weapons for terrain modification in North America?

I remember reading a story once about a plan to build a seaport and modify a significant amount of the coastline at once by using a nuclear explosion. I can't find anything about it now when I try ...
7
votes
3answers
401 views

I'm reading The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. What should I watch out for?

I am currently reading William L. Shirer's The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. I find it an interesting take on Nazi Germany, particularly with its emphasis on the viewpoints afforded by the Foreign ...
12
votes
6answers
1k views

Is there any documentation that indicates the Aztecs were as violent as they are made out?

The iconography of the Aztecs lead us to believe that they were an especially blood-thirsty culture. But consider the scenario where there was some major catastrophe in the USA, reducing the ...
4
votes
1answer
114 views

Did Cahokia have any communication with Mexica or Mayan civilization?

It's roughly 2,000 kilometers from St. Louis to modern Mexico city, as the crow flies; a little farther to the Yucatan. The Mississippi river and the Gulf of Mexico provide reasonably direct water ...
4
votes
4answers
3k views

What was the fate of most SS members after World War II?

What happened to most of the members of the SS after the war? Were they punished?
10
votes
2answers
433 views

How and why did Charles XII Get to Poltava?

The decisive battle of the Great Northern War between Sweden and Russia was the battle of Poltava. That's located deep in the Ukraine, southeast of Kiev, between Cherkassy and Kharkov. That seems ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Clay Bulla token/coin identification needed

What type of bulla is this? This was givin to me with no information, I can only say it might be clay and copper.
2
votes
1answer
56 views

What was considered an epoch by the Phoenicians?

The Phoenicians used a lunisolar calendar similar to the Hebrew calendar. Do we have any idea about what Phoenicians considered as an epoch for their calendar, or at least about the nature of the said ...
5
votes
4answers
2k views

Why did the Phoenicians let the Hebrews (Jews) settle in Canaan?

I know the Hebrews (Jews) started traveling from shumor and Mesopotamia before entering Canaan (Today it is Israel). The Phoenicians were located at the time in Lebanon and Israel area. The ...
17
votes
2answers
905 views

What was used instead of toilet paper in the US and the UK prior to 1900?

I read in this Wikipedia article that toilet paper came to be available only around 1920. On the other hand, this article says bidets were never popular in the UK and the US. Moreover, colonies of ...
0
votes
2answers
152 views

Could some of the Titanic passengers have climbed on the iceberg to survive? [closed]

If the iceberg was large enough and not far away so that after the disaster that is was photographed, maybe some passengers could have climbed onto it in an effort to survive?
8
votes
4answers
2k views

Why and how were east Brandenburg, Pomerania and Silesia taken away from Germany after WW2?

These areas have always been German, in fact Pomerania and Brandenburg were both part of Prussia since the 1700's. Why did the Soviet Union do this, and how did the victorious powers justify taking ...
5
votes
2answers
126 views

Where can I find more information about former German internal enclaves and exclaves?

This question is related to the question I asked previously: Why was the shape of German states pre-WWII (especially Prussia) so complicated? Most maps of pre-WWII are not detailed enough to see an ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

Are there any sources which talk about the experience of attending a 15th/16th century fencing school?

I'm interested to know of any material which describes the experience of being a student at a medieval period fencing school e.g. once which may have been run by a Master teaching in the Lichtenauer ...
5
votes
2answers
176 views

After the fall of Constantinople was there a re-evaluation of the basis of Russia's religion?

According to the Primary Chronicle, Vladimir the Great rejected Judaism in 987 with the rationale that they lost Jerusalem. When Constantinople was conquered in 1453 by the Ottomans, was there any ...
5
votes
3answers
5k views

What was the world population around 970 BC? Does it fit the biblical narrative?

What was the world population around 970 BC? What was Palestine's population around 970 BC? Does the following bible verse fits in the current historical world population estimatives? In Israel ...
-1
votes
2answers
85 views

How efficient was the (Cold War) Red Scare? [closed]

How many spies were really caught in the Red Scare? We all know about the Red Scare and how damaging it was to many Americans and their families. However, given that the Cold War was so filled to the ...
5
votes
2answers
357 views

Was the Battle of Trafalgar strategically pointless?

On a tactical level, the Battle of Trafalgar is one of the most analysed naval battles in history and there are many books and papers covering the battle itself. Most of the strategic analysis covers ...
6
votes
2answers
185 views

Psychology in the 19th century

I have read about the Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo, and noticed that starting from 1829 they taught psychology and ethics. I wonder what the 19th century psychology would be like given that even ...
5
votes
3answers
13k views
3
votes
8answers
381 views

Is treason ever successful?

I'm trying to find an example of successful treason, but haven't found any so far. What I'm looking for: the treason happens at a high level: betraying a country or so the successful side is the ...
4
votes
1answer
70 views

How did Nansen plan to get home from the Fram expedition?

In 1893, the famed explorer Fridtjof Nansen set out on an expedition to reach the North Pole. The plan was to sail a sturdy wooden ship, the Fram, into the ice north of Siberia, then drift, frozen in ...
9
votes
2answers
331 views

Are there any scientific estimates for the population of Mycenaean Greece?

There are a lot of population estimates for Greece of antiquity (from Archaic period circa VIII century B.C. to the late Roman times of Theodosius 395 A.D.) in academic press. Also I found few ...
5
votes
0answers
137 views

What evidence is there that Alfred paid the Danes to leave Wessex in 876?

The Danes struck at Wareham in 876. Alfred made peace there with Guthrum, and there was an exchange of hostages. However, the Danes broke the peace and during the night they killed the hostages and ...
9
votes
3answers
607 views

Was Frederick II of Hohenstaufen really a medieval Dr. Mengele?

According to legend, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, who was intelligent (spoke six languages) and influential, also purportedly used cold-blooded methods to further his "scientific" inquiries. ...
3
votes
1answer
154 views

How secret was the US and British involvement in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état?

A professor mentioned to me that one of the reason that conspiracy theories are popular in Iran (and Middle East in general) was that actual conspiracies involving Western powers against Muslim ...
3
votes
4answers
165 views

In the American civil war, did junior officers join the battle with a rifle?

I was asked at a event event whether or not junior officers may have used a rifle or musket during battle. I haven't seen any evidence in several archive records I've searched. My speculation is that ...

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