9
votes
4answers
4k views

Lion in the european monarchies' flags

I recently found out that most of the European monarchies have the same kind of lion in their flag. As you can see it is a lion with a strange long tongue: Netherlands United Kingdom Prince of ...
3
votes
1answer
390 views

Origin of Khans?

I live in India where lots of Muslims are Khans. I know about Genghis Khan who was not a Muslim but a Khan. So is their any relation between Khans like Genghis Khan (or Mongols) and current Khans?
12
votes
3answers
210 views

What was the internal Soviet reaction to the moon landing?

The Soviet Union was a famously restrictive place when it came to news and ideological spin, and obviously their attitude toward the United States was less than supportive and warm. The Space Race ...
3
votes
1answer
91 views

Did Japan use reconnaissance balloons in WWII?

I have heard that Japan had used reconnaissance balloons in WWII, especially in China as the Chinese lacked air power and effective anti-air weaponry. I know that balloons - airships to be precise - ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Pre-WW2 location of Skalat

Was Skalat on the border between Poland and USSR before WW2? Is there a pre-WW2 map with Skalat? I am trying to confirm information from a 90-year old who reportedly crossed the former border between ...
13
votes
3answers
795 views

Was the Italian campaign a strategic mistake?

Background In September 1943, the Allied forces invaded Southern Italy in combined amphibious operations in Reggio di Calabria (Operation Baytown), Salerno (Operation Avalanche) and Taranto ...
5
votes
3answers
298 views

Where was the Japanese surrender signed on Okinawa in June 1945?

On the 21st of June, Japanese defences on the southern fringe of Okinawa collapsed. The following day General Mitsuru Ushijima and chief of staff Isamu Chō committed suicide. Colonel Yahara was denied ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Where were they ecoshapping and were condemned by the UN

I remember an article from some time in the past about an american/canadian indian tribe which sank an iron rich ship in their lake or inlet to the ocean in order to increase the amount of fish. I ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

What computer was used in 1958 for handwriting recognition by Dimond?

I've just seen that the article Dimond, T. L. "Devices for Reading Handwritten Characters". Papers and Discussions. Presented at the December 9-13, 1957, Eastern Joint Computer Conference: ...
3
votes
0answers
29 views

Etymology of Pine Street in San Francisco

In San Francisco, California, what is Pine Street named after? Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etymologies_of_place_names_in_San_Francisco and other internet sources about SF street naming do ...
0
votes
3answers
121 views

Besides Crecy and Poitiers, in what battle was the Longbow the decisive weapon?

I am looking for the Longbow itself being the decisive weapon, not the Longbow men, as was the case in Agincourt. This could mean some significant disadvantages to the enemy, including things like: ...
11
votes
6answers
1k views

What does it mean that the early supreme court “gave themselves” the power of judicial review?

I'm watching the "Crash Course: American History" youtube series, and I like, it, but it obviously skips over a ton because it's packing decades at a time into 10 minutes. So he just (briefly) ...
7
votes
2answers
918 views

What did the word 'unconstitutional' mean to Americans prior to the Revolution?

I'm reading about the Townshend Acts on Wikipedia, and it says that the American colonists rejected any taxation because it was unconstitutional. Were they referring to a specific document, like the ...
4
votes
2answers
552 views

Did syphilis, polio, hepatitis, and encephalitis come to general world from the Americas?

This site asserts that syphilis, polio, hepatitis, and encephalitis come to general world from the Americas but I am unable to prove that statement could someone confirm or deny it?
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Have economic sanctions prevented or inhibited wars? [closed]

The current escalation of armed conflicts and the complex geopolitical landscape keeps me thinking on how to avoid future wars. The only long term definitive solution I could think of is replacing ...
13
votes
3answers
1k views

Was the location of the 180° line of longitude coincidence or deliberately chosen?

This question on Politics.SE asks about the alignment of maps, and got two answers. The first (mine) says the split through the Bering Strait was chosen for practical reasons, the second says that ...
3
votes
1answer
83 views

Did Marco Polo write about or bring back fireworks from his travels?

I have read a lot of anecdotal accounts claiming that Marco Polo was "impressed" with fireworks he saw in Cathay, and other stories that he "brought back fire crackers" or "introduced gunpowder" to ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Why is the Stamp Act of 1765 known as a “direct tax?”

I'm not exactly sure where to put this question... I am trying to figure out the difference between "direct" and "indirect" taxes in the context of some historical taxes I'm learning about in an ...
2
votes
2answers
101 views

What was the official attitude to Cromwell after the Glorious Revolution?

Under the restored Stuarts, obviously, Cromwell was vilified. Actually, his exhumed head was publicly displayed on a pike for more than 20 years during their rule (wikipedia devotes a separate article ...
3
votes
1answer
212 views

How were middle ranking Nazis known to the allies before the end of the war?

According to Hanns and Rudolf by Thomas Harding near the end of WW2 the allies created a large database ... known as CROWCASS, of war criminals which they intended to target once victory was achieved. ...
9
votes
7answers
1k views

What legal or moral mechanism ensured Stalin's grip on power? [closed]

TL;DR version: How tyrants hold power, in general, and how did Stalin? I mean, for example, Hitler was voted (the "enabling bill") as the absolute ruler of Germany and his will became legally law ...
5
votes
1answer
99 views

What were the Japanese defenses for an allied invasion of Kyushu?

At Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and other island bases of the Japanese forces, the Japanese created a network of deep tunnels and bunkers that made US attempts to evict Japanese forces extremely difficult, time ...
2
votes
2answers
115 views

Why was the Battle of Noryang fought?

In the Battle of Noryang, the combined navy of Chosun (Korean kingdom) and Ming (China) tried to prevent the Japanese from making a safe retreat. But considering the fact that the Koreans or the ...
-8
votes
2answers
118 views

The Chronology Challenge: earliest verifiable date of a historical event? [closed]

If we go backwards in time using verifiable dates, what is the earliest event which can be associated with a specific day without question? I am most interested in answers that actually show the ...
10
votes
4answers
403 views

Did the Roman Empire extend as far north as the Romans could grow wine?

I've heard (in an interview with German biologist Josef Reichholf) the argument that the Romans extended their empire as far north as they could grow their wine. A first glimpse at the map suggests ...
4
votes
4answers
360 views

At what point did Soviet armored units have qualitative parity with Wehrmacht armored units?

Was the T-26 a match for the Panzer II,III, and IV in the early stages of Barbarossa? The T-34 has been given a lot of credit as the tipping point where Soviet technology created a weapons platform ...
2
votes
3answers
369 views

Was Hitler hostile to anglo-saxons before he became hostile to Jews?

The German daily FAZ recently ran a positive review of Irish historian Brendan Simms' article Against a ,World of Enemies‘: The Impact of the First World War on the Development of Hitler’s Ideology in ...
8
votes
2answers
775 views

How much was the wealthy elite harmed by the Bolshevik revolution?

One of the stated benefits of communism is supposed to be that the property of the extremely wealthy will be seized and redistributed. However, a common criticism states that the extremely wealthy ...
2
votes
2answers
271 views

Is this Brzezinski quote real?

Various Russian websites attribute to Brzezinski the following quote: The new world order under U.S. hegemony was created against Russia at the expense of Russia and on the ruins of Russia. I ...
77
votes
27answers
16k views

Why did Hitler attack the Soviet Union when he was still busy fighting the United Kingdom?

This has always bothered me. Everyone knows that having to fight on two opposite fronts at once is bad... and it's also a well known fact that every European country which tried to invade Russia has ...
1
vote
1answer
200 views

How and Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse? [closed]

How did the Soviet Union collapse? (Collapse meaning loss of central power over its member states who declared their independence.) Was it economic, and to what extent? Was it Ronald Reagan and ...
7
votes
4answers
311 views

The practice of translating foreign monarch's or noble's name

In history texts, past foreign monarchs are normally referred to by the English version of their name, e.g. Francis I (not François), Charles V (not Carlos, Karel, or Karl), Phillip II (not Felipe). ...
-3
votes
1answer
120 views

He's whiter than you Hitler [closed]

Hitler famously looked alot like the Orthodox Jews which persecuting. He may have been related to some of them if DNA research done among his relatives is correct. My question is how did Hitler deal ...
1
vote
0answers
55 views

How did people from pre-industrialization era perceive “success in life”? [closed]

My assumption is that the industrial revolution had contributed to the current generally-held understanding of "success in life": go to prestigious university, get a good job, make good money. Now, ...
21
votes
5answers
3k views

Where did Medieval Europe's gold come from?

Medieval Europe processed copious amounts of gold into religious artifacts, jewelry and of course gold coins, as evidenced by the large number of those that survive to this day. Given that today, no ...
-1
votes
1answer
95 views

What was the role of U.S. involvement in World War II? [closed]

I recently read the book 1945 by Newt Gingrich and Harry Turtledove, where the premise is that Hitler got injured, and his advisers chose to wait to attack Russia until winning on the western front, ...
3
votes
1answer
44 views

PANDA Source Analysis

In History at school we learnt the PANDA method to analyse sources, to test for bias and authenticity. P urpose - What is the purpose for which the source was created? Was it to convert people to a ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

What is the difference between a typescript and manuscript? [closed]

I'm looking through a finding guide that uses a few abbreviations (Ts [typescript], Ms [manuscript], Tss [typescript signed], AMs [autographed (written by author) manuscript], AMss [autographed ...
4
votes
1answer
83 views

Once formed, could a Confederate militia company find replacements to remain an effective force? How?

As I understand it, Confederate militia companies were formed of 100 men recruited at the beginning of the war often from within the same county. Disease, battle losses and desertions obviously took ...
0
votes
1answer
122 views

When did Sri Lanka and Myanmar separate from India? [closed]

Sri Lanka and Myanmar were a part of British India. Sri Lanka is culturally similar to India. Then why did these countries separate?
6
votes
3answers
243 views

How did it happen that countries and cities got different names in different languages?

I wonder why a single city's (or country's) name is different in various languages. To me, city and country names are somewhat similar to a person's given name, and it doesn't seem right to call ...
4
votes
0answers
78 views

What is the origin of the Flower of Life symbol?

I have been collecting resources and tracing the history of the Flower of Life geometrical symbol, since it contains great properties of many kinds: While the oldest occurence in Abydos, Egypt has ...
3
votes
0answers
78 views

Contemporary objections to the Bill of Rights's 1st Amendment / Declaration of the Rights of Man, art. 10? [closed]

What were the objections to the Bill of Rights's 1st Amendment when it was first published? Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise ...
1
vote
2answers
136 views

What was the social and cultural role of a “country squire” in Victorian/Edwardian England?

In Agatha Christie's "The Murder of Roger Ackroyd", the following passage appears: Ackroyd has always interested me by being a man more impossibly like a country squire than any country squire ...
8
votes
4answers
398 views

How close were the living standards of India compared to England during the medieval period?

India, China and the African continent today are mostly associated with poverty in Europe, the US and so on. Looking at India specifically, did it during the medieval era share a similar standard of ...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

Where did the term “Middle Ages” come from?

Where did the term "Middle Ages" come from? Who was the first known person to use that term?
26
votes
1answer
657 views

What were the acceptance criteria in universities of medieval Europe?

Did they have entrance tests? Were certain groups officially banned from entering? How much did one have to pay? Did they have scholarships for talented studends? How these criteria differed between ...
16
votes
2answers
2k views

What did squires do in the middle of a medieval battle?

According to wikipedia, a normal squire daily job included: Carrying the knight's armour, shield, sword, Holding any prisoners the knight takes, Rescuing the knight should the knight be ...
4
votes
2answers
122 views

What was the reason for the near-mutiny on the Georgios Averof in 1911?

On June 19, 1911 there was a near-mutiny on the armored cruiser Georgios Averof, while she was undergoing repairs after running aground at Spithead (near Portsmouth, UK). Wikipedia alleges the reason ...
5
votes
3answers
179 views

Did Nikita Krushchev's support of Stalin's purges play a part in his removal from office?

As far as I can tell Krushchev was removed from office because of his erratic policies, and specifically their failures, but did his role in Stalin's purges also play a part in his removal?

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