0
votes
1answer
34 views

What day and year was the first public & general confession held in the Church of England?

Was it proscribed in the act of supremacy of 1532?
3
votes
0answers
78 views

What is the origin of language? [closed]

The use of language is one of the most conspicuous and diagnostic traits that distinguish Homo sapiens from other species. Unlike writing, spoken language leaves no trace.Can we get a direct method in ...
5
votes
2answers
247 views

Are there any accounts of German junior enlisted soldiers surviving the siege of Stalingrad and subsequent captivity?

When the German Sixth Army was surrounded at Stalingrad, there were something like 330,000 soldiers. Perhaps 91,000 survived the siege to surrender two and half months later, and of these, about 5,000 ...
2
votes
0answers
86 views

How would American foreigners have been treated by Mexico shortly after the beginning of WWII?

I am curious to know what everyday life might have been like for a trio of American foreigners in the northern, near-border regions of Mexico during the early days of World War Two. Specifically, I am ...
2
votes
0answers
62 views

Federal courts under the Articles of Confederation

The ninth Article of Confederation establishes federal judicial jurisdiction in some cases, including "disputes and differences now subsisting or that hereafter may arise between two or more States ...
5
votes
1answer
112 views

Who fixed new year's day as 25th March in 1155 CE

I have read that New year's day was fixed at Lady Day 25th March from 1155 until the reform in 1752, but I can't find out who fixed it and why, can anybody help? Responding to the comment by C.G. ...
5
votes
1answer
171 views

Why did the British leave Kohima and Imphal “lightly” defended in 1944?

In 1942, the answer would have been, "because Britain didn't have enough troops." They were then weak "everywhere" along the line. But by early 1944, after two years of the Burma Campaign, Britain ...
3
votes
0answers
88 views

What was everyday life in Mexico like during the early days of WWII? [closed]

I am curious to know what everyday life might have been like for a trio of American foreigners in the northern, near-border regions of Mexico during the early days of World War Two. Specifically, I am ...
0
votes
1answer
170 views

Death by candle [closed]

Many sources state that candles have been heavily used for light and timekeeping starting as early as 3000 BCE. Until electric lighting took over starting in the 19th century, candles and oil lamps ...
6
votes
4answers
312 views

Has there ever been a war between members of a personal union?

A personal union occurs when two otherwise independent states (each with their own territories, governments, etc.) come to share the same monarch. Has it ever come to pass that two member states of a ...
7
votes
1answer
126 views

Could any Habsburg kings of Hungary speak Hungarian?

From 1526 to 1918, Hungary was ruled by the Habsburgs. Could any of the Habsburg kings speak Hungarian, and if so, to what degree? I know that Sissi, the consort of Franz Joseph I, was particularly ...
3
votes
1answer
124 views

How can Germany be blamed for World War 1? [duplicate]

I am going to be participating in a debate about who started world war one and I have been assigned the role of accusing Germany. I do know that Germany was allied with the Austria-Hungarian empire, ...
2
votes
1answer
273 views

What was the rationale behind restrictions on Camera ownership in post-war Germany?

According to the accepted answer to this question: There are very few photographs from occupied Germany because it was illegal for >Germans to own cameras and similar regulations were enforced to ...
-1
votes
1answer
99 views

Did Abraham Lincoln kill the man who murdered his mother? [closed]

I'm watching a dramatized (re-enacted) biography of Abraham Lincoln and it shows him as having shot a man in the eye, shortly after the death of Lincoln's father. The man apparently had something to ...
7
votes
3answers
288 views

What treatment did Allied Jewish POWs get when captured by the Germans?

According to Wikipedia, there were about 500,000 American Jews serving in the US forces during World War II, and another 500,000 Jews served other Allied nations. Some of these servicemen would have ...
4
votes
3answers
227 views

Was von Manstein's Lack of Success at Leningrad (and later Stalingrad) due to the failure of German military intelligence?

Arguably the high water mark of the German eastern front campaign was the capture of Sevastopol by General Erich von Manstein, who was arguably Germany's best general. After this victory, he and his ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

Paying for something in Revolutionary Times

If someone were paying a bill or for a debt in 1790, did they pay with cash or a note of some sort?
2
votes
2answers
182 views

What kinds of documents were forged in the middle ages and how common was forgery?

For example I was reading about the Privilegium Maius, and was wondering what other instances of document forging were there in the middle ages ?
2
votes
2answers
183 views

How did the Nazis justify the differences in the way they treated Jews v. POWs? [closed]

I was reading an autobiographical account of an Army Air Corps POW. He was on a train that made a stop at Dachau to unhook several box cars containing Jews. Although he and his fellow POWs feared for ...
0
votes
2answers
176 views

Why wasn't Russia in the Paris Peace Talks?

After the loss of World War One by Germany and Austria, the Allies convened to discuss in the Paris Peace Talks. It is understandable that Germany and Austria were not allowed to participate in these ...
2
votes
5answers
287 views

Why did Gen. Lee (Civil War) surrender to the U.S?

I am sure, from different sources, that his men were willing to fight to the death, even if they were surrounded. Also, if they were willing to fight in the first place, because the issue was so ...
6
votes
3answers
272 views

Did the Germans have enough bombers to conduct “strategic” bombing of the Soviet Union?

The Germans have been criticized for not using strategic bombing against Soviet factories, oil fields, etc. to suppress Soviet weapons production. On the other hand, it is hard to argue with the ...
35
votes
5answers
10k views

Why was the Japanese Army's fatalities inflicted:suffered ratio so low in the Pacific theatre?

Leaving aside the naval battles of the Pacific, why did the Japanese army do so poorly against allied forces (specifically United states and Australian forces) when on the defensive. While logistics ...
10
votes
0answers
149 views

Why did Switzerland not grant votes to women until 1971?

I was shocked to learn yesterday that Switzerland didn't grant votes to women until 1971. Other European foot-draggers like France granted this right at the end of the second world war, making ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Theoretical approaches to History

Are there theories of approaches to history, or styles of history, insofar as the subject is taught at schools and universities? For example, E. P. Thompson seems to favour a Marxist interpretation ...
2
votes
1answer
65 views

In which modern-day location did the historical battles of Bagrevand happen?

Wikipedia names at least two "battles of Bagrevand", In 371 between Persia and allied Roman-Armenian forces In 775 between the Abbasid Caliphate and rebelling Armenian princes both occuring in the ...
2
votes
1answer
101 views

What do the four castles on the flag of Ibiza represent?

The flag of Ibiza consists of four horizontal, red stripes on a yellow background. Each corner of the flag contains a seven-tower castle above a wave. What is the significance of the four castles? ...
24
votes
4answers
3k views

In WWII, what were the major differences in tank combat on the eastern and western fronts?

Nearly every nation deployed tanks in World War II. What are some differences in tactics between the eastern front in Russia and Eastern Europe, and the western front in France, the Low Countries, and ...
4
votes
1answer
111 views

How did the supplies shipped in winter over the “Road of Life” to Leningrad compare to those at other times of the year?

A key factor in the survival of Leningrad during its 900 day siege was the "Road of Life" built across a frozen Lake Ladoga during the winter months of 1941, 1942, and 1943, and lasting nearly half a ...
6
votes
1answer
293 views

Why did the Swabian Hohenzollern princes give away their power to the Prussian king in 1850?

The small independent country of Hohenzollern in southwestern Germany was run by two princes until 1850, when it was given away to the king of Prussia, who was a distant cousin to the princes (also ...
0
votes
0answers
110 views

The Code of Corsairs of Mediterranean of the Middle Ages

How was the code and operating rules of the corsairs of the Mediterranean used, such as by Barbary Corsairs or Knights of the Order, during Middle Ages? There are references to agreements in the ...
2
votes
0answers
73 views

What was church life in England like after the act of supremacy in 1532? Did churchgoers find any change in the sacraments from day one? [closed]

Where did Henry VIII find the priests to administer the services? How were they bound? Could (or did) any priests refuse to follow the new ways? Why were only the monks targeted for dissolution? ...
13
votes
3answers
1k views

Has a plague ever caused a civilization to collapse?

It is a fairly common trope in apocalyptic fiction to imagine a plague to cause modern civilization to completely collapse. (c.f. Stephen King's "The Stand" ). But has this ever actually happened in ...
-3
votes
4answers
130 views

How does the cost-benefit relationship of owning a horse differ today from the Middle Ages or Early Industrial Revolution?

If I were to be gifted a horse nowadays, I would've been pissed. I would have to spend a lot of money in its food, in a blacksmith for horseshoes, grooming, cleaning his box, the rent of his box, ...
5
votes
1answer
53 views

When was the Passover Seder ritual formalized?

When were the Passover Seder customs in their present form formalized? As a terminus post quem I think we can surely take 70 CE when the Second Temple was destroyed since parts of the Seder ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

What are the symbols on the Tomb of the Priestess of Isis along Via Appia

A couple of years ago, I had the good fortune to ride along the Appian Way and admire the old tombstones still standing along the old Roman road. (Highly recommended for any Roman history buff!). I ...
3
votes
2answers
115 views

What was the price of a horse around 1750?

I'm looking for the average price of a horse, in British Pounds, around the year 1750. I'm interested in draft horses (they pull carts), not riding horses, but the difference in price between those ...
5
votes
0answers
132 views

Were Roman marching songs still bawdy during principate/dominate?

We know from writers such as Suetonius in his Vita Divi Iuli that legionnaires would sing some quite raunchy and bawdy tunes, even during a triumph of their leader. There were open allusions to ...
9
votes
0answers
99 views

Pre-Christian use of the Greek Septuagint

I'm interested in the pre-Christian use of the Septuagint, as well as the Greek language, within Jewish everyday life in Israel and in the synagogues of Israel. Is there evidence that the LXX or ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

What “other property” was considered for representation at the Constitutional Convention?

In the Wikipedia article on the US Constitutional Convention, it states that: The most contentious disputes revolved around the composition and election of the Senate, how "proportional ...
7
votes
1answer
201 views

At what point were there the most current and former US Presidents alive?

At what year or parts of years were the most current (meaning in office) and former Presidents of the United States alive? It seems that 1833 to 1836 had the most current, former, and future ...
4
votes
1answer
218 views

Why did England and Portugal cheap out on the Battle of Aljubarrota?

One of the most important and famous battles in the Iberian Peninsula took place in Aljubarrota. There were two main parties: Castille (With Aragonian, French and Italian support) Portugal (With ...
1
vote
3answers
142 views

Why did Latin take root so deeply in Italy, Gaul, and the Iberian Peninsula, but not Greece or beyond?

I was just reflecting on the fact that Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and French all evolved from Latin, the language spread across that area by the Roman Empire 2000 years ago. (Romanian too, I ...
0
votes
1answer
87 views

Clan allegances [closed]

My family clan is Paterson/Patterson - my husband is clan MacDougall. We recently learned however that my husband's great, great grandfather MacDougall's wife (aka his great, great grandmother) was ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

What is the proportion of Harki descendants in today's French Algerian community?

I was having this discussion once with someone, and now I am curious: Q: What proportion of today's Algerian immigrants (of first and second generation, who may or may not have French nationality) in ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

How does Upton Sinclair's The Jungle contribute to Historiography?

I know Upton Sinclair was not a Historian, however his work The Jungle has had a significant impact on how society views industry standards, regulations, government agency's, etcetera. There are broad ...
10
votes
1answer
165 views

“The signal on the Zibby is dead” - what is the meaning of “Zibby”?

I am line editing a book about World War II and the Battle of the Coral Sea. The action is taking place in the front and rear cockpits of a Devastator torpedo-bomber aircraft. The pilot and gunner ...
-2
votes
1answer
145 views

Was it true that Nelson Mandela refused to renounce violence while in Prison?

I got this comment from an article on Mandela: Most white South Africans rejoin that Nelson Mandela had no reason to seek revenge on anyone, nor any basis for extending forgiveness to his ...
19
votes
1answer
3k views

Does a reputation for cruelty to PoWs give a tactical advantage?

Among warring factions, some groups throughout history have sought to strike fear into their adversaries by 'making examples' of any members of the opposing force(s) that they capture alive, by means ...
-1
votes
2answers
88 views

Are there any historical conceptions that accurately depict a scenario of swinging rapidly from a state of war to a state of tranquility? [closed]

Leading on from the horrors of the First World War, the pussyfooting involved in the Second World War could be likened to that of a swinging mechanism of war, rapidly followed by peace, then followed ...

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