3
votes
0answers
26 views

Presidents of the French Tribunate from 1799 to 1807

who were the presidents of the French Tribunate from 1799 to 1807? the French wiki only has an undated list of names (http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribunat): Pierre Daunou Jean-Nicolas Démeunier ...
8
votes
1answer
118 views

Who were the Deer Touchers?

About 20 years ago I read an article in a periodical (can't remember which periodical) about a tribe of natives (I believe they were North American) who had a tradition of touching live deer. They ...
3
votes
1answer
163 views

Usage of German camoflage during World War II

Although most do not know this, Germans used camouflage during the war. The grey uniform was only ceremonial. However, they are pictured without the camo 99% of the time so I'd like to ask, during ...
2
votes
0answers
46 views

What is the status of Weber's protestant ethic thesis? [closed]

Max Weber in his famous book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism elaborates a thesis that relates the development of the capitalistic system is a result of the work ethic that emerged ...
5
votes
2answers
314 views

How many soldiers did Ghengis Khan field?

I'm looking for the number of soldiers the Mongol Empire had at the time of Genghis Khan. What percentage of them were ethnically Mongolians?
11
votes
1answer
183 views

How were Muslim Turks treated in Byzantine Empire?

While reading about the Palaiologan Renaissance on Wikipedia, I was intrigued to find that a mosque was rebuilt in Constantinople, which was destroyed during the fourth crusade(read about it here). I ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

Employment statistics in Germany since mid-19th century [closed]

What is the most reliable source of employment statistics in Germany? I am interested in the time period starting from mid-19th century all the way to present days.
9
votes
3answers
172 views

How did the Alien and Sedition acts pass?

The Alien and Sedition acts, passed in 1798, are said to have been an attempt by the Federalist Party to suppress opposition. In Chapter 74 Section 2, the law seems to put restrictions on freedom of ...
18
votes
5answers
2k views

Why do so many national flags contain the color red?

I was doing some riddles with my daughter today and mentioned some nations. She had to 'calculate' how many of those nations' flags had the color red in them. As it happened, all of them did. In ...
-1
votes
1answer
92 views

How did Americans' hatred of taxes shape the country up through the Gilded Age? [closed]

It is clear that many Americans hated taxes and that it was one of the causes of the Revolutionary War. However, the effect of taxes shaping America after Independence up until the Gilded Age is not ...
1
vote
1answer
92 views

Outdoors Survival Knowledge for Samurai?

Did any era's Samurai know Outdoors Survival Knowledge? If so, which eras, which country (or however Japan separated its land at that time), and how much did they know?
15
votes
3answers
785 views

Why did the French nobility adopt Calvinism?

The Wikipedia article on the French Wars of Religion says that the Calvinist form of Protestantism, in particular, spread into the nobility. Now, I'd like to know why is that, and not Lutheranism for ...
6
votes
4answers
182 views

Did native Mexicans prefer Spanish rulers to the Aztecs?

In his letter to Charles V, Hernan Cortes states that "it was only necessary to threaten to return them [the natives] to their native masters in order to make them serve the Spaniards very willingly." ...
0
votes
2answers
64 views

Other than coffee and tobacco what major product became Cuba's source of wealth in the 18th century?

How did the Industrial Revolution affect the production of this commodity? What, if any, affect did the Great Depression have on the industry?
3
votes
1answer
185 views

How were snipers used on the western front during WW2?

When the topic of snipers in WWII comes up, it's almost always about Soviet snipers and the eastern front. What about the western front? I'm specifically interested in how or if the British, American, ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

What distinguished the Republican Party of Liberia from the True Whig Party?

What was the difference between the two parties? Wikipedia says that the Republican Party was made up primarily of Americo-Liberians who had mixed African and European ancestry. I assume the TWP was ...
5
votes
3answers
132 views

Use of lead sheets in reconstruction of late medieval tower?

I guess it's more of an archaeology question, but this is the closest forum I could find. So, we stopped at Gardiki Castle, Corfu, Greece, built in the late Byzantine era in the 13th century, and ...
4
votes
0answers
71 views

Did Socrates earn money (get paid) for philosophy? [closed]

I have only read Platos Apology, so I was rather surprised when a recent comment said he "was paid". A quick look at Wikipedia find this In The Clouds Aristophanes portrays Socrates as ...
9
votes
1answer
3k views

Did Hongwu Emperor flay 5000 women, and why?

On Wikipedia, there is a snippet that reads: The Hongwu Emperor flayed many servants, officials and rebels.[5][6] In 1396 he ordered the flaying of 5000 women.[7] The problem is that the second ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Historical African Demographic and Agriculture Data

I'm looking for resources that give the the demographic breakdown of African nations for the time period 1880-1960 (so colonization), such as from censuses. Primarily, I need the european share of the ...
6
votes
1answer
120 views

How long did it take to build earth dikes with low-tech tools?

Let's say you're in charge of a group of laborers anywhere from the Iron Age to the Middle Ages. Your job is to build a dike made of earth, a couple of meters high and presumably about the same width ...
4
votes
1answer
85 views

On the electoral system of Roman centuriate assembly

The centuriate assembly (Comicia centuriata) was arguably the most important assembly of the Roman republic. It was in charge of electing consuls, praetors and censors, of voting laws, declaring war ...
4
votes
1answer
183 views

When was the concept of “art criticism” first seen?

Today being an art critic is a full time occupation for some individuals. When/where does the concept of "art criticism" first come into being? Clarify I am NOT looking for a random person sharing ...
5
votes
0answers
51 views

Conditions of Polish minority in Weimar Republic?

It's a well known fact that the border between Germany and the re-created Poland in 1918 was decided by the allies. It was drawn semi-arbitrairly following the places where the majority of people were ...
4
votes
1answer
143 views

What is / are the specific reason(s) for Vyacheslav Molotov's fall from grace with Joseph Stalin?

From the 1930's through World War 2, Vyacheslav Molotov seemed to be the face of the Soviet Union in most diplomatic circles. Sometime after the war he lost favor with Stalin. Some reports say to the ...
4
votes
0answers
76 views

How can the impact of moving the Brazilian capital be analyzed? [closed]

Around 50 years ago Brasília became the capital of Brazil. The distances between São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro - where the biggest part of the population live - from Brasília are big enough to have ...
7
votes
3answers
282 views

How was the current month and day disseminated to the townspeople of Medieval Europe?

How was the current month and day disseminated to the townspeople of the Medieval Europe? I'm quite sure that personal calendars weren't a thing back then... but I could be wrong... If they had a ...
9
votes
0answers
116 views

CIA mole in Indira Gandhi's Cabinet

It is discussed in several books that the CIA had a mole in Indira Gandhi's cabinet around the time of the Liberation war for Bangladesh in 1971. There are conflicting reports about who the mole could ...
3
votes
2answers
72 views

Which culture first referenced bigfoot?

Bigfoot and Sasquatch have a lot of tales and history in different regions. What was the first point of reference for these stories/sightings. Also to make this a little clearer. Can we just throw ...
4
votes
1answer
138 views

Is Benedict XVI the first pope emeritus?

I have read in a newspaper that Benedict XVI is the first pope emeritus. Is he really the first pope in history to resign? Or does the title pope emeritus have more specific meaning than just a "pope ...
5
votes
3answers
363 views

What is the most noteworthy defection of a member of the Nazi party to the Allies during WWII?

During WWII, before it became clear the Nazis were going to lose, is there any especially noteworthy examples of a member or members of the Nazi party defecting to the Allies? I'm aware noteworthy is ...
3
votes
6answers
1k views

When and why did single deity religions become more popular than multi deity religions? [closed]

In the world at the moment, the most popular religions seem to mostly be religions that worship only one "God", such as Christianity and Islam. However, in the past there were many religions that ...
1
vote
3answers
162 views

Are any civil wars — other than the American Civil War — commonly reenacted?

...and if not, what is it that makes people comfortable reenacting the American Civil War? It would seem grotesque to reenact the Rwandan Civil War or Yugoslavian Civil War, for example. In ...
4
votes
3answers
172 views

When and what was the maximum extent of Nationalist China?

The Republic of China (1912–49) claimed a large area of land, the most notable difference compared to present-day China being the inclusion of Mongolia. However, it's my understanding that at no point ...
2
votes
3answers
224 views

What was American anti-tank doctrine during WWII on paper, and how did it differ from in practice?

What was the prevailing doctrine in the US Army on how to deal with German tanks during WWII? In an ideal situation, what sort of unit (anti-tank infantry, tank destroyers, towed AT guns, etc.) would ...
10
votes
4answers
390 views

Why were the Mongolian armies able to to use greater percentages of archers than (Medieval) Europeans?

Much has been made in other posts about how hard it was for European armies to train and maintain large numbers of archers able to use a longbow, crossbow, or similar weapons. Yet, the Mongolians ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

Help identify ship, possibly from New York area

I got this picture in the same auction I got the Clermont Replica Steamship, so it may be from North River area. Stern flag has letters AVOC?
1
vote
0answers
63 views

What were the coat of arms / flags of Lotharingia? [closed]

Sometimes the flag of the Lorraine region is identified as the flag of Lotharingia. But I didn't found any proof of that. The paint made by Albrech Dürer (~1500AD), show only the western and the ...
4
votes
1answer
119 views

Who owns the Saudi-Iraqi neutral zone after the 1991 Gulf War?

According to Wikipedia, the Saudi-Iraqi neutral zone was created in 1922 by the British-controlled Iraq and the Sultanate of Nejd (the predecessor of Saudi Arabia). The same article continues: As ...
1
vote
1answer
151 views

How old was the youngest white person sentenced to death in the U.S.A?

The Question is self explanatory. Death penalty has for a long time been exposing interesting trends of social discrepancies based on life determining attributes like wealth, education race. How ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

When were public tariffs and taxes for water supply introduced for the first time?

Early Rome had indoor plumbing, meaning a system of aqueducts and pipes that terminated in homes and at public wells and fountains for people to use.It was in the 18th century that a rapidly growing ...
4
votes
2answers
181 views

When did the Soviet Union stop blaming the Entente for WW2?

In the fall 1939 the SU blamed Britain and France for starting WW2 exclusively (i.e., no blame was put on Germany). It shifted the blame to Germany after 1941-06-22 (obviously). When was the last time ...
8
votes
1answer
253 views

How voluntary was Sati during the Mughal era?

So the ritual of sati (where a women must throw herself onto the funeral pyre of her dead husband) was widely practiced throughout South Asia in the Ancient era and Middle Ages. In the Mughal era, ...
-1
votes
2answers
76 views

When was the last book containing a table of logarithms was published? [closed]

My question is when the last book containing a table of logarithms was published. For example, I know that the CRC Standard Mathematical Tables doesn't contain the logarithmic tables any more, but ...
2
votes
2answers
148 views

German offensives between Normandy and Bulge?

In regards to World War II, I always hear about the great number of Allied victories won between the Battle of Normandy and the Battle of the Bulge in 1944. Very little is spoken of German victories. ...
5
votes
1answer
109 views

What did Central America export in the early 20th century other than coffee and bananas?

Coffee and bananas dominated the Central American economy after the turn of the century, accounting for 75% of the region's exports in 1930. Central America became very dependent on the fortune of ...
6
votes
2answers
117 views

How would a 16-17th Century European Rapier have been made?

I've done a little reading on sand and permanent casting but a rapier seems like it may be thin for that kind of manufacture. What methods and tools would have been used to make it? (Please provide ...
23
votes
5answers
9k views

Why are the USA and Canada's states border so straight?

Many states within the USA and Canada have straight lines as a border, completely ignoring natural borders like mountains or rivers. Many American states and Canadian provinces are just ...
2
votes
1answer
140 views

Identify this two mast one funnel side paddle-steamer boat circa 1900

I am trying to identify this side paddle wheel steamer. Looks like a wedding party just forward of the sail. Can't ID the flag. Image/photo is gelatin silver so early 1900s most probably.
10
votes
1answer
197 views

Soviet reaction to Battle of the Denmark Strait

At the time of the Battle of the Denmark Strait - 1941-05-24 - Soviets were still officially friendly with Germany. I wonder what the reaction to the battle was, e.g., Did they send an official ...

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