2
votes
1answer
126 views

What is the death toll attributed to US internment of Japanese-Americans during WWII?

We know that Spanish internment camps in Cuba at the start of 20th century were pretty horrific in terms of death toll. What was the death toll attributed to US internment camps for ...
7
votes
3answers
762 views

What was the most accurate map of the world before artificial satellites?

How accurate were the maps before the invention of artificial satellites? What was the most accurate map of the Earth before satellites?
8
votes
0answers
105 views

Did Viet Nam suffer a famine any time during the 1980s? And if not, how close was it to famine?

Wikipedia claims that In 1988, Vietnam suffered a famine that afflicted millions. But its only citation is this 1988 NYT article that mentions "famine fears". A 2002 Economist article states ...
2
votes
0answers
65 views

Is there any information about Soshandukht or her father?

This is mentioned on Wiki's page about the Sassanid dynasty Yazdegerd I's successor was his son Bahram V (421–438), one of the most well-known Sassanid kings and the hero of many myths. Bahram V's ...
4
votes
1answer
207 views

Did Goebbels really say “Truth is the enemy of the state”? If so, when?

One of the most famous so-called quotation attributed to Nazi propagandist, Joseph Goebbels is: If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it. The ...
3
votes
1answer
67 views

What was the purpose of military prefectures in Song?

The Song dynasty administrative system is really hard to understand (at least for me), and I have many questions about it. Here I'll concentrate on the military prefectures. It's well documented the ...
7
votes
0answers
68 views

How were the Venera Probe missions received/presented in the western world during the space race?

I can find barely any historical documentation on this subject. If you know anything about its development, please chip in as well. I'm writing a paper on the missions and putting them into ...
4
votes
2answers
94 views

What was the American response to the Sino-Soviet border conflict? [closed]

In 1969, detente with either the PRC or USSR lay in the future. All three countries were hostile towards one another. Was the USA pleased its two rivals were tearing lumps out of each other, or were ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

Where was the ruling seat of East Francia located under Henry the Fowler?

It seems safe to assume that Bavaria wasn't an option as Arnulf the Bad controlled this area throughout Henry's reign. The only possible candidates that I can find are Memleben (where Henry died) or ...
3
votes
1answer
83 views

What is the earliest archaeological evidence of silk presence in Ancient Rome?

And are there any archaeological data about silk in pre-Imperial Rome?
13
votes
3answers
244 views

In the USSR, what if any was the formal, ideological response to the Cultural Revolution in China?

How did the USSR parse and explain an ostensibly uber-communist movement which was dedicated to overthrowing the leadership of the country's communist party? Did they see this as 'Trostkyism', or some ...
0
votes
5answers
155 views

Was literacy ever used as a tool to oppress the population by higher social classes? [closed]

In this question, one of the answers stated that Actually, states can interact well enough with their subjects in the villages without widespread literacy. It helps to have someone literate who ...
2
votes
1answer
145 views

Was Angkor wat built on top of water?

I was watching a National Geographic Documentary. In that, it said that Angkor Wat was built on top of water. It was also told that it used to be an ancient observatory. Is this true? I searched all ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Dimensions and parts of Fort Douglas, Winnipeg Canada

I am having troubles estimating the dimensions of Fort Douglas that WAS in Winnipeg Canada. Fort Douglas (from what I understand, correct me if I'm wrong) was the stage of the battle of Seven Oaks. I ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

What is the oldest excavated/discovered piece of silk textile made for clothing or writing?

Chu manuscript dating back to circa 300 B.C., middle of the Warring States era. Mawangdui robe's dating back to ~ 200..150 B.C., beginning of the Western Han. Do you know any older examples of ...
2
votes
2answers
304 views

Why is literacy difficult? [closed]

This question continues from Literacy in the classical world It seems that literacy rates for populations prior to mass education becoming prevalent were estimated to be 20% or lower. However, it can ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

What is the difference between Mughals and Afghanis? [closed]

I was reading India history. There is a description that Babur battled with Ibraham Lodhi ,and finally he won. As per my knowledge Babur is basically Mughal, and his native was Afghanistan. Similarly, ...
-1
votes
1answer
67 views

Morse code is a ternary human-optimised code, is there a binary, non-machine optimised code? [closed]

http://cs.stackexchange.com/questions/34067/is-morse-code-without-spaces-uniquely-decipherable Discusses how Morse code isn't very clear without the third (usually) unseen element, the space. Is ...
-2
votes
2answers
51 views

What factors contributed to Korea's Modernization? [closed]

The only thing I can really come up with is the Japanese Occupation. Horrible as it was, it helped the Korean economy and growth greatly. But I cannot find anything else to attribute to its ...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

What does the skull and crossbones on the Nazi uniform represent?

I was watching The Boy in Striped Pyjamas, and I saw this skull and crossbones on this Nazi's cap. Why is it there? (That is, what does this represent?)
0
votes
3answers
98 views

In the USSR, did they ever stop 'officially' believing in the future Communist utopia?

Karl Marx taught of a state which 'withered away' until 'communism' had been achieved: that is a stateless, communal society of prosperity and perpetual peace. To begin with at least, the Soviet Union ...
6
votes
3answers
276 views

Before the use of Anno Domini dating (BCE/CE), how were years numbered?

Currently we use Anno Domini (A.D.) year numbering, sometimes secularized as "BCE" (Before Common Era) or "CE" (Common Era). What was the prevailing method of dating years in Western culture before ...
1
vote
2answers
132 views

Historical assessments of the effectiveness of torture

With the Senate Torture report in the news, one of the arguments against torture is that it is ineffective: torturing someone just makes them tell you anything they think will make the torture stop, ...
5
votes
4answers
311 views

What happened to all the notable Roman families?

What happened to the numerous (patrician) families of Rome? Like the Gens Julia for example. There are no ancestors today leading back to them like for example the famous Medici family from ...
2
votes
1answer
129 views

How were Warrant Officers appointed to Royal Navy ships during the Age of Sail?

As I understand it, Warrant Officers got their name from the warrant issued by the Admiralty (depending on the applicant having the correct qualifications). From the descriptions I've read, these ...
5
votes
1answer
124 views

What was the typical range of travel of a Pennsylvanian resident for everyday life in the late 18th early 19th Century Pennsylvania?

How much traveling did a typical Pennsylvanian resident do for everyday life in the late 18th early 19th Century (1775-1825) Pennsylvania and what was the 'typical' range (in miles) from their home ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

Where to find a list of participants in The Crusades? [closed]

I am curious as to where a compiled list of participants in The Crusades exist and how would one access this, particularly of European Crusaders but would find it interesting of any records of both ...
3
votes
1answer
423 views

In the past were there gifts on the days leading up to Christmas instead of them all being on the one day?

Sometimes I'm tempted to give my kids gifts in a spread out way, instead of all at once, so they can appreciate each gift. In the song The 12 Days of Christmas the author describes getting gifts on ...
15
votes
1answer
1k views

How did the Allies communicate during World War II?

I was wondering how the allied (America and England, since France was occupied by the Nazis) communicated securely with each other in 1943. I know that the SIGSALY existed, but I am most interested in ...
5
votes
1answer
176 views

What was the age of majority in 1900 United States?

What was the age of majority in 1900, in the United States? For women and for men? I am not asking about the age of consent. The age of majority is the chronological moment when minors cease to ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

What is the meaning of this samurai crest?

From User Jordan Miles Hamanaka Kaplowit's comment to this question: Meaning of samurai crest / symbol What is the meaning of the sixth crest symbol?
2
votes
2answers
102 views

Which cultures considered dual-gender sacred

Which cultures have historically considered the manifestation of two or more genders by one individual to be either a divine trait (being a deity) or to be an indication of divine favor or association ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Who is Heckler?

On researching the Black Plague I have a few times run into the name of "Heckler" who supposedly is the source for the information that 25% of the population of Europe was killed by the plague. For ...
4
votes
1answer
120 views

Yearly population growth rate throughout history

Has there been a comprehensive analysis of relative human population growth rate throughout history? I'm interested in seeing how the growth rate (not world population) has evolved in the past ...
-2
votes
1answer
162 views

WWII: Did the entire war depend on breaking the ENIGMA cipher? [closed]

I recently watched this great historical movie called ENIGMA (2001) As I saw the movie, a British general claimed that the entire war was depended on breaking the ENIGMA cipher? Is this really a ...
5
votes
2answers
159 views

Were there prominent secular philosophers in the European middle ages? If so, who?

I've only done a small amount of reading on the middle ages, and on the history of Western philosophy, but from what I can glean education and religion were tightly coupled during the period, so most ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

What was the death toll of Plague of Justinian?

I am looking for approximate number of people that died in Europe during 541–542 Plague of Justinian. All wiki has is Modern scholars believe that the plague killed up to 5,000 people per day in ...
6
votes
2answers
156 views

How close did Germany come to interdicting Soviet oil shipments from the Caucasus in 1942?

In 1942, the Germans captured a relatively small oil complex at Maikop in the North Caucasus, and got within 25 miles of a larger one at Grozny. But the biggest prize was at Baku, on the "far" ...
8
votes
1answer
73 views

Forms of address of Roman Magistrates under Constantinus

In The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Gibbon mentions that Roman magistrates under Constantinus the Great had such titles as; your Sincerity, your Gravity, your Excellency, your ...
10
votes
1answer
412 views

Instances of Jauhar around the world

Are there any evidence that the practice similar to Jauhar existed in places other than India too? It seems like a pretty effective way, however brutal it may be, to escape slavery, rapes and ...
1
vote
0answers
104 views

What is the historical relationship between Yule and Christmas?

What is the historical relationship between Yule and Christmas? Yule is in part a set of secular and religious observances of a festival, arising out of pagan Germanic cultures. Christmas is in part ...
-2
votes
1answer
78 views

Kingdom of Judah under Babylonian rule

I'm writing some work about the kingdom of Judah under the Babylonian rule (604-539 BC). I am looking for the reasons that led to the instability of Judah under the Babylonian rule. I would ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

Will someone help me understand the following quotation about Calvinism?

Okay, working on some class notes for school, and I stumbled upon a sentence which seems like it's in another language to me in the text: "To Luther’s emphasis on the individual’s relationship to ...
2
votes
2answers
184 views

Was it possible to navigate a river against the current on a medieval boat?

I'm aware of the historically importance of rivers for earlier civilizations. Some of the most significant economies of the past were built on the bank of a river. I would like to know if: Was it ...
2
votes
0answers
100 views

Was it controversial when Parliament restricted the suffrage to the Forty Shilling Freeholders in 1430?

According to this House of Commons Library research paper, suffrage in the county constituencies was initially open to every man who was head of a household, or at least that's my understanding of the ...
52
votes
3answers
4k views

How did people distinguish slaves from free people in Ancient Rome?

I've tried to find some information about it, but failed. Somehow it doesn't seem to be important enough to write about it. Let's say there is an educated slave living in a relatively rich household ...
5
votes
2answers
254 views

Japanese peace negotiations in WWII

As I understand it, the Japanese plan for the Pacific War was to grab a bunch of territory, then negotiate peace from a position of strength. Did the Japanese ever try to start those peace ...
-1
votes
1answer
52 views

Were 'Phillipe de Croy' and 'William Whyte' historical people? [closed]

Not sure if this goes here, but I couldn't work see a literature stack exchange... In the Sherlock Holmes story A Study in Scarlet, I have always wondered about the following passage: '"I have my ...
2
votes
2answers
76 views

Did the proto-Indo-Europeans displace or overlay the pre-existing European tribes?

The various proto-Indo-European groups which entered European in the 2nd millennium BCE replaced local languages very thoroughly. Basque and Sami might be remainders of pre-PIE people's languages. ...
-3
votes
1answer
88 views

How were the first computers on the internet connected? [closed]

The internet started as a small "net" of interconnected computers, but how were those computers connected? Was a chip manufactured to be installed onto the computer? Was it software?

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