5
votes
3answers
186 views

Who were the Catholic popes before Francis I who used names not of Latin, Greek or Jewish origin?

Who were the Catholic popes before the current Francis I who used names not of Latin, Greek or Jewish origin? Particularly, names of Germanic origin, like Francis.
8
votes
2answers
713 views

Why did Allied invasion of France occur only in 1944 and not earlier?

Stalin (quite understandably) had demanded that the Allies open a Second Front as early as 1942, yet this did not happen till June 1944. Why did it have to wait till so late?
3
votes
1answer
77 views

Duchy and Electorate of Saxony during the Schmalkaldic War

The Wikipedia page for the Schmalkaldic War list the Duchy of Saxony and the Electorate of Saxony as opposing sides of the war, each with their own monarch (Maurice is the Duke of Saxony, John ...
-1
votes
1answer
217 views

What is the exact date and year when the first car got invented? [closed]

Cars. They have been around for over 100 years, I know that. But does anyone know the exact date and year that cars were invented? That is my question and I would like responses. Thank you.
4
votes
2answers
293 views

What led to the romantic perception of the Mayan civilization?

When the territories of the Mayan civilization were conquered in Mesoamerica, the European priests burnt all the books and references they could find about the Mayan culture. It was not until 1839 ...
4
votes
1answer
169 views

German WWI Retreat

I am wondering if there was any standardized signal for a retreat that the Germans used during WWI. I know that flares and sirens were used for various things, but haven't read anything regarding ...
12
votes
3answers
838 views

How did Greece avoid the Soviet sphere of influence?

It seems to me that east of Italy / Germany all of Europe was in the Soviet sphere of influence, with the blatant exception of Greece. I'm sure that the long coast made access to Western influence ...
5
votes
1answer
650 views

How did conditional POW exchanges work in WW2?

In Battleground Prussia Prit Buttar includes a chapter on the infamous sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff in 1945. The author notes that the ship's captain, a Friedrich Petersen, had been captured by the ...
-1
votes
3answers
249 views

Which one is ancient Hinduisam or Dravidiasm [closed]

As per the history Hinduisam is Oldest and ancient on the earth... As per my research... Hinduthvam is from Aryan Race and their Language was Sanskrit and Pakrit... Dravidians are different Race.. ...
10
votes
2answers
234 views

How is it that King Philips War devastated the colonists so much, but the Colonists were not driven out?

King Philips War, or Metacom's War if you will, was pretty devastating to the Northeast Colonies in the pre-United States - yet even after this the tribes that could have realized that the English and ...
1
vote
3answers
2k views
5
votes
2answers
359 views

In Civil War Reenactments why do people walk across the battlefield

Mostly all Civil War movies/reenactments you come across a scene that goes as follows... Union/Confederacy are advancing in an open field towards the enemy but are walking as cannonballs and what not ...
7
votes
1answer
148 views

What are legitimate methods and sources?

How does a historian or an amateur determine what legitimate methods can be used and what legitimate sources are? Obviously there are many methods to read texts and speculate about political, social, ...
9
votes
9answers
2k views

What is the best historical example of conflict between two cultures with differing levels of technology? [closed]

Let me start with some background, in fiction authors like to explore situations where the human race meets another civilization. As a rule of thumb both races in one way or another - sometimes after ...
2
votes
2answers
84 views

What are some early examples of local businesses advertising?

Today we see advertisements at sporting events, roadsides, menus, and pretty much everywhere else. What are some early (you define early, but I was specifically thinking of the hey-day of the ...
5
votes
1answer
137 views

How much did it cost to maintain Gustavus Adolphus' army? How much of it was paid by Richelieu?

I know that Cardinal Richelieu subsidized a large portion of Gustavus Adolphus' Protestant forces during the 30 Year War - despite France, ironically, being a Catholic power (citation obviously ...
11
votes
3answers
391 views

WWII boat-looking bus

What was the purpose of this WWII boat-looking bus? Description says: Royal Navy officers 'aboard' 'HMS SPURIOUS MARK II' - a bus converted to resemble the island of an aircraft carrier. The ...
6
votes
2answers
201 views

Did Engels and Welles ever call for the extermination of Basques and Serbs?

Someone in some scribble in a matter-of-fact way made this assertion. Is it based on fact? Here's the original quote (in Russian) and its googletrans + my light fixing: Фридрих Энгельс упоминал о ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

What was character of Chmielnitski's rise?

What was the character of Chmielnitski's rise? It has started as a private conflict between him and a polish nobel, Aleksander Czapliński. But what was after? And what was the reason to fight when ...
-4
votes
1answer
111 views

Horses.. goats… evolution [closed]

I am not sure if this is the right place for this question, but under the StackExchange umbrella I think its best I ask it here. After watching shows like Game Of Thrones, Vikings, Spartans etc. I ...
15
votes
3answers
3k views

Is the USA a superpower today because of WW2?

I understand that the USA funded the war effort against the Axis, although the Allies in Europe had to pay for this help in one way or another. It's fascinating to see how not that long ago ...
4
votes
1answer
181 views

Underwater U-boat battles [duplicate]

In the movie U-571 (IMDB) there's a scene where two U-boats fire torpedoes at each other, at close range, while both submerged. I always imagined U-boats would fight one another while on the surface, ...
11
votes
2answers
392 views

Which undeciphered writing system has the largest corpus of text?

Dozens of ancient writing systems are still undeciphered. My question is: Which of them has the largest number of known inscriptions (and might thus be most accessible to future decipherment, though ...
7
votes
1answer
449 views

How was whiskey made in the 1800's?

In the 1800s, before more modern conveniences such as mass produced oak barrels became available, how long was whiskey aged, taking into consideration the high demand and technological restraints? ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Could a nobleman's land be enclosed within another noble's land?

In medieval (in the broadest sense, I'm not thinking of a specific decade) Europe, lands were split up amongst noblemen, and these noblemen had a hierarchy. Barons are lesser than earls which are ...
1
vote
5answers
231 views

Is external expansion an element of fascist ideology

The topic of ideology is very fascinating to me. I'm currently writing a book about it. Although its related to a different context, information about all ideology would be helpful. I'm getting ...
3
votes
1answer
878 views

How did the Emperor Titus die?

How did Titus die? Do we have any historical sources that are less fanciful than the Babylonian Talmud, quoted below? Are there any other records of his symptoms prior to death? According to ...
12
votes
2answers
929 views

How did the Roman army go from constantly losing battles in the middle of the 3rd century to winning almost everything?

During the middle of the 3rd century (crisis years) the roman legions seemed to be beaten left and right by the Goths, Sassanians and numerous Germanic tribes. Then suddenly with the arrival of the ...
0
votes
2answers
400 views

Do more Britons than Americans profess Christianity?

If so, why? And if not, when was it not the case that a greater percentage of Americans believe in Christianity than Britons? And what caused the subsequent divergence? Definitions. (For the ...
6
votes
1answer
462 views

How did IKEA design evolve?

How did IKEA develop the characteristic style? I know there is a catalog each year, but I'm looking more for a summary and overview of the design evolution. I understand it's not as significant as, ...
5
votes
0answers
112 views

Execution at the scene of the crime under Australian law

The Criminal Law Consolidation Act Amendment Act 1971 (South Australia) removed the ability for Aboriginal murderers to be executed at the scene of the crime as allowed by the Criminal Law ...
0
votes
1answer
6k views

What does Spivak mean by “epistemic violence” in her paper “can the subaltern speak”? [closed]

What does G. Spivak mean by epistemic violence in her essay "Can the subaltern speak"? Does she mean that intellectuals in Europe and first world countries are prolonging and fixing the ...
5
votes
4answers
338 views

Why did it take so long for humanity to be able to cross the oceans?

Caravels were a key invention that allowed Iberian Peninsula people to sail from Europe to America. But why it took so long for this to happen? Which problems had to be solved to make that possible? ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

Tracking down fifteenth century French and Italian coats of arms

I'm trying to track down coats of arms for the following people: Catherine of Taranto Tristan de Clermont But I don't know even where to start. Any ideas, even in general of where to look for ...
3
votes
1answer
234 views

Why are some Americans more religious than European counterparts? [closed]

What are some of the historical reasons for why certain Americans are more religious than similar Europeans? For example, there are pronounced differences in Church attendance; Extent of belief in ...
12
votes
9answers
3k views

Why didn't the Greeks or Romans have an Industrial Revolution?

The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the 18th century. The precursor to the Industrial Revolution was the Enlightenment. This occurred when European scholars rediscovered Greek and ...
4
votes
3answers
137 views

Was the penal system used to colonise Australia?

Margaret Atwood once said on the Stranger Than Fiction podcast that the British had a strategy to colonise Australia via the penal system. That is, their motivation for sending criminals to the ...
6
votes
3answers
886 views

Where were the western legions when the Roman empire fell?

Whenever I read about the collapse of the western half of the Roman empire, I get a feeling of total collapse, as if no legions existed there anymore. The collapse of the empire would also mean no ...
-3
votes
1answer
557 views

Is there evidence in Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel that supports his “due not to innate differences in the peoples” conclusion? [closed]

This is an except from the epilogue of Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond. New York London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2005 I would say to Yali: the striking differences between the ...
11
votes
3answers
469 views

What was (if at all) Hitler's Plan B if Molotov-Ribbentrop had not worked out?

As we know, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union amicably agreed to attack Poland and to share it between themselves. Did Hitler and his staff have a detailed or formal contingency plan in case the ...
2
votes
1answer
122 views

Did the Virginia pound use the pound sign (£)?

During most of the colonial era, Virginia used its own currency, the Virginia pound. Today, the pound sign (£) is used to designate the British pound as well as other "pound" currencies. Was the ...
4
votes
2answers
514 views

Spain's tributary empire vs. Portugal's seaborne empire

While the Spanish built a huge colonial empire in the Americas, why didn't Portugal colonize the South Asian coast and only aimed at controlling trade? Why did these empires pursue such different ...
6
votes
1answer
237 views

Were there interstate tariffs before the US Constitution (1789)?

I've heard many times that the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution was (in part) designed to end tariffs between the thirteen states. Now that I'm trying to learn about those tariffs, I'm having a ...
5
votes
1answer
247 views

What coin denominations were used in the US before Dollars and Cents?

In Thomas Jefferson's proposal for a decimal currency, he describes the status quo as: The [cent] will differ little from the copper of the four Eastern States, which is 1/108 of a dollar; still ...
5
votes
2answers
154 views

Was COMECON involved in economic imperialism and if so, to what extent?

Disclaimer: I am not 100% sure if it was COMECON, it might be another Soviet apparatus. I recall reading about how the Soviet Union forced her Eastern European satellites into very lucrative and ...
9
votes
2answers
225 views

What were Hiroshima and Nagasaki known for prior to World War II? [closed]

Prior to becoming the first (and so far only) military targets of atomic bombs, how well-known were Hiroshima and Nagasaki outside of Japan, and (if at all) for what?
1
vote
1answer
271 views

Were Christians really burned for lighting by Nero? [closed]

I presume after fire of Rome Nero persecuted Christians. But it is the form of persecution which interest me since Tacitus writes Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the ...
2
votes
1answer
86 views

How did the United States penal system evolve? [closed]

The penal system of the United States is unusual in several aspects: The United States is one of the rare Western nations that retains and practices capital punishment in law and practice. Prison ...
7
votes
2answers
146 views

Did technical managers have to join the Nazi party?

In the Soviet Union a person who was rising in technical management (say, becoming the director of a plant) was usually expected to join the Communist Party as a pre-requisite of getting the job. I ...
-4
votes
1answer
106 views

Holocaust reparations & liberation bill [closed]

Since the end of WWII, Jewish groups have been suing Germany and Axis owned businesses for reparations for their roles in the holocaust. In a similar vein, have the Russians ever sent the Jews a bill ...

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