4
votes
1answer
126 views

Why is Toledo not the capital of Spain anymore? [closed]

A few hundred years ago Toledo was the capital of Spain. Back then, Madrid was a small town with a relatively small number of citizens. What is the reason that Toledo is not the capital anymore?
4
votes
3answers
100 views

Why was Anne of Austria so called?

She was a Spanish princess by birth. So why is she called "of Austria"? Is it because her mother was an Austrian princess? But presumably, it should be the person's place of birth that gives them ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

What is the current U.S. monetary standard? [closed]

Despite my greatest efforts, I could not find any information about what standard the U.S. is using at this time. Apparently, we used to be on a gold standard. What about now? Do we even have a ...
0
votes
1answer
113 views

Why do (almost) all countries have a flag, coat of arms, anthem, national holiday etc.?

A number of official symbols are used by virtually all modern nations. These include: National flag1 Coat of arms National anthem National Day Given that it is often difficult to get even two of ...
7
votes
3answers
126 views

What evidence is there that English Political divisions from the 1600s are replicated in American politics today?

This post makes the claim that American political divisions today have their roots in English political divisions from the 1600's. For example: East Anglians, the core of the Parliamentarian ...
6
votes
1answer
78 views

Keynesian economics during his era

Nowadays in politics, critics of Keynesian economics say it is unsustainable spending. However, I know that John Maynard Keynes actually said budgets should be balanced in the medium term, just not ...
2
votes
1answer
163 views

Technology and status symbols that predate language [closed]

I remember distinctly reading about peoples and cultures - in, I believe, the Caucasus - that used to knap large flakes of flint into spearheads and would use them (instead of actual tools) as status ...
4
votes
0answers
42 views

Sales of books of Rousseau in Versailles

I am currently comparing the sales of books by Rousseau and Voltaire in the city of Versailles, and I noticed a very important peak in sales of books by Rousseau in 1781. I was wondering if anyone ...
6
votes
2answers
259 views

How much firepower did the British navy represent in 1940?

A question was recently asked about how Britain would have defended herself against a cross-channel invasion by Hitler. A key element in the British defense would be the Royal Navy. At the beginning ...
0
votes
2answers
104 views

What was the official policy of British administration about the integration of Indian Princely States in 1947?

What direction was given in Indian Independence Act, 1947 about the political integration of Princely States during the partition of India? What policy was introduced by the British authority about ...
5
votes
1answer
117 views

Did the Nazis have any unique or especially effective economic policies?

The Nazi rule in Germany is associated with (among many, many other things) a sudden and powerful economic resurgence. This is especially impressive since it happened in a country that was ...
9
votes
2answers
158 views

What was the legal status of an East German once he had reached West Germany?

Cold War histories usually state something like "any German able to reach West Germany was automatically granted West German citizenship" to explain how easy it was to go from East to West, if only ...
11
votes
4answers
790 views

How did the Nazis plan to “defeat” America during World War II?

Yamamoto famously advised against a war with the United States, because he could tell how powerful they would be once they got going. The Nazis, however, declared war on the United States of their ...
3
votes
0answers
28 views

In what ways was Canadian sovereignty in the arctic being challenged in the 1950s?

Wikipedia article on the settlement of Grise Fiord in the Canadian Arctic strongly suggests that Canada in the 1950s strove to populate its arctic territory in response to challenges to its ...
6
votes
4answers
380 views

What were Britain's defensive plans for a Nazi invasion?

Despite the fact that it never ended up happening, a Nazi invasion of England was kind of a common sense inevitability for a while during the beginning of World War 2. Had the Battle of Britain gone ...
-1
votes
2answers
87 views

Is it fair to say that the USSR has technical parity over NATO on land and air over much of the cold war? [closed]

I was always under the impression that the USSR had the advantage over NATO for much of the cold war until the 80's, when the stagnating Soviet economy hurt their weapons programs whist Reagan's ...
3
votes
3answers
231 views

How were the borders of the Holy Roman Empire established?

We all know that the Holy Roman Empire was a collection of minor Germanic states in the Medieval and Renaissance Europe. Wikipedia stated that: The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of ...
4
votes
1answer
80 views

Row for powers of 10 on 1950's French typewriter keyboards

In the movie Populaire, 1950's-era French typewriter keyboards are shown with dedicated "1", "10", "100", "1...", "10...", "100...", "1M", and "10M" keys on the top row. Was there a dedicated type ...
1
vote
0answers
95 views

What preparations went into the Tehran Conference of 1943?

The Tehran Conference during World War 2 was a hugely important meeting, and perhaps more importantly, a hugely dangerous proposition. Having all those leaders together in one place risked utter ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

Link between Mary I and Bloody Mary [closed]

I've heard that Queen Mary I of England have another name that is "Bloody Mary". and there also is a folklore about the Bloody Mary which is about holding a candle in front of mirror. Is there any ...
6
votes
2answers
107 views

Did the fairy craze overlap the UFO one?

One theory goes that cultural interest in technologic UFOs* derived from the same paranormal sensibilities as fairies and elves of previous centuries; and as such when one waxed in interest ...
0
votes
1answer
261 views

On Washington's Farewell Address

Here is a question from CollegeBoard's practice APUSH exam... I'm having trouble answering it. Washington's Farewell warned against the dangers of international alliances and the formation of ...
4
votes
2answers
254 views

Why did Hitler not order the use of poison gas in combat?

From what I know, Hitler wanted Germans to fight, quite literally, to the last, and he wouldn't have minded terribly if every last German died fighting the enemy. So why did he never use poison gas ...
8
votes
2answers
197 views

Did the Trojan Horse actually exist?

The story of the Trojan Horse is very well known in the West, but did it actually exist, and if so what was it? Although the Odyssey is mostly mythical and fantastic, we know that a few elements were ...
8
votes
2answers
249 views

Is there evidence Muslim soldiers fought in the Continental Army?

It is said that Muslims fought for the American Revolution, by serving in the Continental Army. Wikipedia cites a few names: Records from the American Revolutionary War indicate that at least a ...
4
votes
1answer
62 views

What type of defenses did the Pequot use at their fort?

During the Pequot War (1634-1638), the Pequot built a fort near modern Mystic, Connecticut. This fort was overrun by the English settlers in 1637 who massacred most of the inhabitants. What type of ...
4
votes
0answers
57 views

How similar were Finnish and Lenape slash-and-burn agriculture?

Slash-and-burn agriculture is a technique where farmers cut down woodland and burn the debris to form farmland. This farmland is usually used for a few years until it loses its fertility, then the ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Did any European/American settlements in the Ohio Country survive the French and Indian War?

The Ohio Company was formed in 1748 to bring English settlement to the Ohio Country. At that time, the Ohio Country was largely uninhabited, as the Iroquois had driven out or exterminated the tribes ...
4
votes
1answer
53 views

Why did the Dutch West India Company allow Quakers in the New Netherlands?

In 1657 a group of English Quakers arrived in New Amsterdam (the Dutch colonial town that became modern New York City). They were persecuted by the colonial government there for their religion. Then ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

How did people dress at the Jesuit missions to the Hurons?

The Jesuits established a number of missions among the Huron people of what is today Ontario during the 1600s. Unlike many other proselytizing groups of that era, the Jesuits were known for ...
5
votes
1answer
90 views

Did anyone do Yoga on the Titanic?

The eastern practice of yoga has become quite prevalent in recent years. I imagine that when the Titanic sailed, it was quite rare and exotic. However, England had (shall we say) strong ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

Were the Puritans for a State Church?

In a book titled America's Providential History it states on page 84 that The major Puritan weakness was their holding to the idea of a State Church. They saw nothing wrong with a National ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

What would have been the carrying capacity for 11th-13th century backpacks?

After this question was closed over at RPG Stack Exchange, I'm still left wanting a comprehensive answer. My question, again, is this: What is a realistic estimate of the weight an 11th to 13th ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

How were fortification doors protected against fire?

Ancient and medieval fortifications are often shown to have wooden gate doors in the midst of their stone walls. Now granted, these doors are often massive and incredibly thick, but it still seems ...
6
votes
2answers
503 views

Can anyone identify this Union commander?

At the beginning of the first episode of the PBS documentary series about the US Civil War the narrator describes some of the main characters without giving their names. One was 'a professor from ...
11
votes
1answer
995 views

Where did the French revolutionists get their weapons?

I have learned in class that the main purpose of raiding the Bastille in 14 July 1789 was to acquire the weapons in the Bastille. There was only a few political prisoners held there. There were, on ...
3
votes
1answer
54 views

Power over the centuries: spiritual vs. political vs. economic

I recently attended a presentation on the shift in power over the centuries. The speaker argued that ... the power in the middle ages was in the churches, i.e., the priests and, thus, in the ...
5
votes
1answer
181 views

What was Hitler like in private?

The image of Hitler is very well-formed in the modern public imagination: stern, stoic, focused, commanding and intimidating, with a powerful oratory skill and a terrifying ability to stir up passion ...
4
votes
0answers
98 views

Countries which banned Ferdinand the bull?

Background The book "The Story of Ferdinand " is a short illustrated children's story featuring a bull who would not be provoked by a matador. When it was published in 1936, it was widely interpreted ...
6
votes
1answer
253 views

What is the origin of these WW1 “official history” maps?

I'm looking for a source, preferably the original atlas or set of documents in facsimile, for the following WW1 maps (and their siblings): I've only found these fragments, reproduced on the Web ...
3
votes
2answers
84 views

What is “the dead credit”?

I was reading the Wikipedia page for the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth and this picture was featured to demonstrate the diverse society. It is propably a parody of various pictures called ...
3
votes
0answers
97 views

Did Ivan Marchenko actually exist? [closed]

According to Wikipedia (and other sources I saw) so very little is known about Ivan Marchenko that his name is not even mentioned in official documents around that time; even his date of birth is ...
8
votes
1answer
87 views

Does Little Hagia sophia still contain Greek mosaics under the plaster?

Little Hagia Sophia is a small church in Istanbul located close to the famous and large Hagia Sophia. It was built around the same time and is said to have contained very beautiful mosaics. At the ...
4
votes
2answers
289 views

Was either side legally in the right in the Hundred Years War?

Legalistically speaking which side was right in the Hundred Years War. My view is that the Salic law combined with the principle that nobody can transmit a right greater than he himself can possess ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

what did the Romans call Cardigan the town in West Wales uk

I understand that the Romans made an encyclopaedia of all their territory and I would like to know what they called Cardigan as I am trying to date a milestone built upside down into my cottage.
7
votes
1answer
224 views

Around the time of Columbus, were there other failed attempts?

In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue. He sailed farther than anyone else had ever done, on three tiny ill-equipped ships. After days of sailing he finally reached his intended destination and ...
1
vote
1answer
88 views

Do revisionist historiographies come closer to “unbiased truth”? [closed]

Historiography, the practice of historians, regularly revises historiographical accounts of history. The revision of history, or "historical revisionism," often involves raising new concepts or ...
1
vote
1answer
84 views

How does governance evolve?

There is a simplistic model of history that roughly goes: In the beginning people wandered the land with pointy sticks and the most masculine guy beat up all the other guys and made himself king. ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

Voting enfranchisement in the USA in the 18th century

It is frequently asserted that when the US constitution was ratified in 1788, it was a very progressive piece of legislation because it gave everyone the right to vote, making the US the first modern ...
4
votes
2answers
155 views

US Army stations in France during World war 2

My grandpa served in World War 2 as a technical Sergeant for the Signal corps (414 signal company). He kept a very extensive list of everywhere he traveled and I'm trying to put together a map of all ...

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