1
vote
1answer
80 views

How were years numbered on the Republican Calendar? [closed]

The French Republican Calendar was created after the revolution to remove all religious references from the calendar, but how were years numbered on it? The Gregorian Calendar (which was used before ...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

What percentage of British and American troops were involved in direct combat with enemy in World War II

How large a proportion of British and American troops were involved in direct combat with the enemy in World War II? What was the casualty rate among those men?
5
votes
1answer
238 views

When did we discover air?

I'm certain that ancient man knew of wind and of our need to breathe, but when did air as a distinct material become obvious? I notice that the four classical elements are water, wind, fire, and ...
9
votes
2answers
272 views

Why did Fakhr-al-Din seek a treaty with Tuscany, of all places?

In an interesting vignette, it turns out that the Druze emir of Lebanon, Fakhr-al-Din, had traveled in the early 17th century to Florence and tried to conclude a military alliance with the Grand Duchy ...
9
votes
2answers
566 views

Muslim population in Islamic Iberia

Is there a record or estimate of the Muslim population count in Iberia (Spain/Portugal) during the peak of Islamic rule? Probably 10th or 11th century? And how big was this in percent of all Iberian ...
14
votes
1answer
463 views

in what form did William the Conqueror write the date of his own coronation?

This is a question about the English legal calendar as viewed by people living at the time, not as historians recorded it later. New year shifts to 1-January To the best of my understanding, the ...
9
votes
1answer
124 views

How much of the *Iliad* was confirmed scientifically?

Obviously, one of the central facts of Homer's Iliad was confirmed when archaeologists found Troy. But were there any other details of Iliad (such as existance of Atreidae dynasty, Agamemnon actually ...
4
votes
2answers
210 views

Have there been gay riots in the US?

I was wondering has there ever been uprisings in the history of the US that were for gay rights or started by gay people?
27
votes
3answers
2k views

Did the Romans have winter uniforms?

Standard ancient Roman uniform consisted of a tunic, a cloak and sandal-type boots, resulting in a look like this. Now, this is all very well for Mediterranean climates but I really cannot fathom how ...
-1
votes
1answer
298 views

Ancient Civilization in non-Egyption Africa? [closed]

I am looking for ancient civilizations in central and south of Africa. Were there any ancient cities, such as Timbuktu, Benin, or Zimbabwe for which there are scientific tools or other artifacts ...
5
votes
1answer
620 views

Why was the massive Human Wave attack used in WWI? [closed]

If the Human Wave Attack wave tactic is in all the lights, a invitation to a carnage, why was it so largely used in battles in WWI? Weren't other tactical options available at the time that could have ...
-3
votes
3answers
2k views

What are historical examples of globalization in action? [closed]

What specific things in society demonstrate globalization to the fullest extent? For example, every country in the world has electricity. Would this be a successful candidate for the representation ...
2
votes
0answers
72 views

Egyptian Ushabti and their uniquness

I know what a shabti is, but what is the uniqueness in shabti that makes it valuable. I tried searching shabti, but all I got is: "They are small man like clay figures who come to life to serve their ...
32
votes
6answers
1k views

Has a state ever “attacked” another one by printing fake money?

Has any state ever performed an "economic attack" against another state, by printing fake money of the victim's currency? Or, is it known if someone ever considered doing it, and which were the ...
5
votes
1answer
124 views

Was Christianity legalized during the Meiji Restoration?

Also were men given the right to vote during the Restoration?
7
votes
5answers
364 views

Is there a link between national debt/trade deficit and starting a war?

I saw in an article mentioning that there is a link between national debt and starting wars I don't recall where I've seen it mentioned to look for further references on the matter. Are there known ...
9
votes
1answer
4k views

What was Gandhi's post-factum view of the Partition?

Gandhi was vehemently opposed to the Partition of India and tried to avoid it. But what was his stance on it once it had happened? Did he accept it as fait accompli or did he envision some scheme for ...
2
votes
5answers
331 views

Was there a single ancient religion that all others sprang from?

Many religions share same stories, Christianity, Judaism and Islam for example (the ones I know of at least). Some of those stories could even be traced to earlier civilizations in the Middle East ...
5
votes
2answers
4k views

What is the first known organized religion in the world?

Which were the first religions to be created with well known scriptures, ceremonies and traditions? Was it that of the ancient Egyptians or the old kingdoms of the Middle East? What about Africa or ...
6
votes
2answers
255 views

Number of humans that are killed by Alexander and Genghis Khan?

Is there any estimate of the number of people that were killed during invasions and conquests of Alexander and Genghis Khan? or at least can say me which one killed more people? What percent of them ...
10
votes
2answers
410 views

Have the current polar ice caps receded further than those that existed before the beginning of the last Ice Age?

Has science been able to determine from the geologic record how our current ice caps compare to those that existed before before the beginning of the last Ice Age? If so, how do they match up? (I ...
18
votes
1answer
277 views

North Korean Famine

I have just read an article (in Russian) about the most recent weird news from N.Korea: women are (again) not allowed to ride bicycles. After you've finished splitting your sides with laughter, allow ...
10
votes
3answers
369 views

Were there any German operations to destroy supply routes in the Persian corridor in WWII?

Germany used its naval fleet to stop allied arctic supply route to the USSR. Were there any German operations, in Iran and Iraq (who were pro-German) to throttle allied supply routes through the ...
12
votes
1answer
938 views

Did the Soviet Union know when DEFCON levels changed?

The US military uses a scale of alert readiness called DEFCON, with DEFCON 5 being the lowest alert level and DEFCON 1 being the highest, preparing for imminent nuclear war. At least once during the ...
5
votes
2answers
147 views

'Sub rosa' council meetings

Wiktionary's etymology of the term sub rosa reads: The rose's connotation for secrecy dates back to Greek mythology. Aphrodite gave a rose to her son Eros, the god of love; he, in turn, gave it to ...
6
votes
2answers
871 views

How do functionalists explain the fact that Holocaust continued until the very end of the war?

While I haven't read Goldhagen or scholars with a similar viewpoint directly, I frequently encounter the following argument that seems very Goldhagenite to me: "The Germans tried to murder Jews up ...
10
votes
1answer
189 views

What happened to Frederick II's library?

The emperor Frederick II was, among other things, a very learned man who wrote a highly regarded book on falconry. Presumably, he would have had a sizeable library. Is there some mention of his ...
2
votes
0answers
150 views

Ted Nugent and draft dodging

I've asked whether this is in scope: Are draft-dodgers in scope?. I'm not sure,but I'll crack on anyway. Too what extent did Ted Nugent dodge the draft for Vietnam. He certainly did receive ...
12
votes
2answers
426 views

How did Napoleon evade the British fleet and return to France?

After the defeat of the French fleet off the coast of Egypt in 1798, Napoleon's army was cut off in a far away and hostile country. One year later, after eluding the British fleet, he made it safely ...
9
votes
4answers
2k views

Has the existence of a matriarchal society really been discredited?

I always thought that there was proof of the existence of matriarchal society in the ancient times but apparently, according to Wikipedia this hypothesis is mostly discredited today. Why? Wiki cites: ...
8
votes
2answers
355 views

Ethnic Germans in Russian service in Poland

General Brusilov wrote in his memoirs that a few years before the war he was serving in a high military position in Russian-controlled Poland and that he was appalled by the fact that all Russian high ...
12
votes
5answers
4k views

Is there a civilization that never believed in God in the ancient times?

I'm not obviously talking about small groups or individuals but about an actual civilization that never believed about the existence of a supreme essence. Is atheism just a modern concept?
8
votes
3answers
2k views

Who invented the first flag?

An answer on this site claims that the first flags were heraldic flags used in battles. But when was this, and for which nations?
12
votes
2answers
266 views

First time the sail ship technology took off

At what point in history did the sail ship technology take off for the first time? And by that I mean sail ships that significantly eased trade across water and which got produced in significant ...
7
votes
1answer
491 views

Why Antarctica was never conquered before the advent of the modern men?

Citing wikipedia: "...the first confirmed sighting of the continent is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1820 by the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Heads of state convicted in international court

From this BBC News article: Taylor became the first former head of state to be convicted of war crimes by an international court since the Nuremberg trials of Nazis after World War II. What ...
10
votes
3answers
2k views

Did the Celts really go into battle naked?

Yes, this of-repeated tale was reported by the Romans all the time, but it sounds a lot like rumor. Stuff the victors write about their former enemies, "they were so stupid, they went into battle ...
-1
votes
1answer
481 views

Are the Neanderthals a subspecies of Homo sapiens or not? [closed]

For some time, scientists have debated whether Neanderthals should be classified as Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, the latter placing Neanderthals as a subspecies of Homo ...
4
votes
1answer
719 views

Why did Jefferson have to 'Stretch the Constitutional Breaking Point' for the Louisiana Purchase?

Because the U.S. Constitution did not explicitly grant the president the power to purchase territory, when the 'Now or Never' moment came to purchase the Louisiana territory, he had 'stretched ...
5
votes
0answers
504 views

Why has bidet use not spread to the northern countries of Europe? [closed]

As wikipedia states, the bidet is quite common in southern European countries (in Italy for example, it is found in 95% of households), in the Middle East and in East Asia. Conversely, bidets are ...
9
votes
2answers
193 views

Why didn't mercenary combat after the middle ages lead to the collapse of the ruling class?

The structure of society and warfare were closely connected to each other in the feudal system. The land belonged to the crown, the king assigned it to lords in return for military service, and in the ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Did the Romans “copy” their political system from the Greeks?

This is an outgrowth of the discussion here. My sense is that the Romans developed their system autochthonously, probably with some influence from their Etruscan neigbours and one-time-overlords. ...
9
votes
4answers
595 views

Isn't there any positive legacy of the Mongolian occupation in Russia?

In the BBC radio 4 series The Wild East, the history of Russia after the Mongolian occupation is described as if all the bad things happend subsequently had been caused by the legacy of that era. ...
20
votes
6answers
37k views

Why were Spain and Portugal neutral / not invaded in WWII?

Why was not Spain and Portugal involved in World War II with either side? Was not Franco sympathetic with the Axis powers given the help they offered during the civil war? Also, given their ...
13
votes
4answers
1k views

Aside from the Jews, did Hitler have a final solution plan for other ethnicities/races in the Third Reich?

We know that Nazi ideology explicitly singled out Jews as the main reason for all Germany's problems, and planned to exterminate all of them. Nazis also persecuted gypsies, Polish people, and POWs. ...
5
votes
3answers
429 views

Was Japan really part of the Axis?

I recall in history class learning that the Japanese could have attacked the USSR in the 1940s and potentially split Stalin's forces - which presumably would have been more useful for the Nazis than ...
31
votes
3answers
11k views

Why the Romans were unable to conquer Germania?

Emperor Augustus ordered his army to subdue the Germanic tribes in what is modern Germany. This was promptly achieved and by 6 AD the Romans controlled Germany up to the river Elba. The Romans were ...
7
votes
2answers
506 views

What factors led some South American governments to be sympathetic to Nazi war criminals?

What were some of the factors that contributed to some South American governments being so sympathetic to Nazi war criminals that they harbored them?
18
votes
3answers
921 views

How did Hitler behave towards all those whom he knew in his childhood and youth after he rose to power?

What do we know of Hitler's acts and attitudes towards those people he knew in his childhood and youth after he rose to power? For example, his World War One comrades? Did they receive and attention ...
8
votes
2answers
638 views

After the independence, did George Washington continue to wear a military uniform?

I know that some of the historic legends continued and some not. We are talking about 2nd half of the 18th century. Fashion was so fancy. Obviously, the founding fathers -- quite possibly -- adapted ...

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