3
votes
2answers
317 views

Diminishing powers of the Roman Catholic church in international matters

Before Enlightenment and Renaissance, Church or Pope had some powers which were almost same as what international organization may have. for example: After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, ...
6
votes
1answer
291 views

Have any of the Presidents of France taken advantage of its co-princeship of Andorra in a significant way?

The Principality of Andorra is quite interesting, because it is a monarchy headed by two persons, including the President of France (who is basically elected at will of foreigners). My question is, ...
5
votes
2answers
163 views

Did the break up of AT & T in 1984 lead to technological innovation?

Are there examples of technologies developed since 1984 that would not have been likely to be developed had the Bell system stayed intact rather than being broken up by the US government? UPDT: To ...
11
votes
4answers
2k views

Did the Germans lose the U-Boat war in World war II because of a shortage of quality, rather than quantity?

In the "Battle of the Atlantic," the Germans lost almost 800 of their 1200 submarines (nearly two-thirds) sinking 3,500 Allied merchant ships and 175 warships. ...
9
votes
10answers
2k views

Why were people from the Asian Steppes able to militarily dominate Europeans on a repeated basis?

From the Huns through the Mongolians, why were nomadic people from the east able to create such havoc in Europe? Was it an endless 'first mover' advantage with horse domestication? Was it a higher ...
2
votes
2answers
541 views

What types of Poison gasses were used in World War 1? [closed]

Due to the nature of trench warfare, some form of poison gasses would have been really useful in the trenches. In the trenches the gasses really would’ve been really useful with the limited mobility ...
6
votes
1answer
512 views

What were acceptance criteria/process to the Vienna Fine Arts Academy in 1906-7?

One famous applicant rejected by the Vienna Fine Arts Academy was of course, Hitler. I got to thinking: so who was accepted instead? To make sense of this we would need to know how was the admission ...
2
votes
2answers
146 views

Subjects of sermons in the Middle Ages

Were they more often devoted to New Testament subjects or to Old Testament subjects?
2
votes
2answers
479 views

How did the triple entente manage such a large breakthrough in WW1?

In WW1, there have been many attempts at breakthroughs in order to evade the trench system. The battle of Somme was one of the less successful attempts at a German breakthrough. Yet, before USA ...
5
votes
3answers
244 views

Les Misérables historical setting

What is the period in French history portrayed in Les Misérables in the early 1800s? Also, who was the French King at that time - the restored King? I thought the French Revolution was in the late ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Machine gun specs in WW1 [closed]

I know that machine guns were a vital part of world war 1. I know that they were mainly used in the trenches as fixed position weapons. However, I would like some specifications about the machine gun ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Did New Imperialism differ in nature from earlier Imperialism?

In Wikipedia, there is an article about New Imperialism, which refers to the territorial or colonial expansion during 19th-20th century. The article also says that the qualifier "New" is to contrast ...
-5
votes
3answers
173 views

Why didn't United States replace Mohamad Rezā Shāh with another king during the 1979 revolution?

During World War 2 Rezā Shāh was forced to abdicate in favor of his son. This way, why during Iran's revolution the Carter's administration had arranged for the shah to leave Iran? Why didn't they ...
6
votes
3answers
414 views

Why the military revolution is a cause of the industrial revolution?

I've heard that the military revolution in Europe helps its to reach the industrial revolution. It's an answer to the question "Why the industrial revolution starts in Europe and not in China", while ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

How were dogs used in WW1

I know that dogs were used in WW1. I know that they weren’t vital, but didn’t play a reasonable role in helping the soldiers in the trenches. However, there is one thing that confuses me: How were ...
12
votes
1answer
198 views

Was the State of Indiana's legislation changed to fix the value of Pi?

Is the following an anecdote? Mathematicians describe Pi as an irrational number, that is, a number that cannot be expressed as the ratio of any two integers. This was an irksome fact to the State ...
5
votes
1answer
235 views

How big was the percentage of white people in the USA who were not against granting the blacks equal rights? [closed]

How big was the percentage of white people in the USA who were not against granting the blacks equal rights at the time when the blacks finally got the equality of rights (which I think was in 1964). ...
12
votes
4answers
3k views

Could The Soviet Union have continued fighting World War II without Caucasus oil?

In 1942, Germany's Fall Blau was initially aimed at capturing or interdicting shipments of oil from the Caucasus to the rest of the Soviet Union. Even though armies were diverted to Stalingrad and ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

GDP per capita of major combatants before and after WWII?

Perhaps this is difficult to measure and maybe not even a good metric for anything meaningful, but what was the GDP and GDP per capita for nations around the world immediately before World War II? ...
10
votes
4answers
3k views

Did Hitler not intend a major war while invading Poland?

A J P Taylor in his book "The Origins of the Second World War" writes, "Hitler never intended a major war and at most was prepared for only a limited war against Poland." "In 1938-39, the ...
2
votes
0answers
93 views

Israel's Official Gazette online? [closed]

Since 1948, Israel's Official Gazette has detailed all of the bills and notices of Israel's government, making it a mine of historical information. The website of the Israel State Archives says: ...
4
votes
1answer
108 views

History of terrorist organizations designations/undesignations by Israel

In 1948, Israel passed the Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance, which allows it to officially designate organizations as terrorists in the Official Gazette. What organizations have been designated this ...
21
votes
8answers
3k views

Did Heisenberg undermine the German atomic bomb by deliberately hiding his expertise from the Nazis?

Source. In his massive book Heisenberg's War: The Secret History of the German Bomb, Thomas Powers says that Heisenberg, who never became a Nazi and balked at the immorality of building a bomb for ...
4
votes
3answers
5k views

Why did Germany attack Neutral Belgium in the first world war?

I have a basic idea about the Schieffen plan and I know that Germany attacked Belgium in the First world war. But I am slightly confused about this topic, as despite the fact that the schieffen plan ...
8
votes
4answers
425 views

The practice of translating foreign monarch's or noble's name

In history texts, past foreign monarchs are normally referred to by the English version of their name, e.g. Francis I (not François), Charles V (not Carlos, Karel, or Karl), Phillip II (not Felipe). ...
11
votes
2answers
549 views

Amount of time an aeroplane could stay in the air during the last stages of WW1

I know for a fact that aeroplanes were used at the last stages of the first world war to capture images of the enemy trench system and supply lines. They were also used to alert the artillery how far ...
13
votes
1answer
316 views

Husaria, the winged hussars

The Polish husaria did carry wings -- as can be seen here or here. Their purpose has been debated with no clear answer. What I want to know is was there an evolution in the wings design or just one ...
4
votes
3answers
399 views

Did people have better nutrition before agriculture?

A lot of proponents of new diets, e.g. Paleo, Primal, Atkins argue that grains have made people unhealthier and life expectancy was much better before the transition to agriculture. Some research ...
7
votes
4answers
747 views

Why didn’t Britain use its vast navy to get past trench warfare?

Before the start of World War I there was a large arms race between Britain and Germany and although Britain didn’t come out with the largest army – they had by far the largest navy in the world. This ...
1
vote
0answers
192 views

Why is our planet called Earth? [closed]

How did the Earth get its name? The answer on Wikipedia is a bit short and unhelpful. I was not just referring to its English name - in the few languages I know it translates to basically the same ...
1
vote
1answer
192 views

What is the evidence for North Korean famine of 1990s? [closed]

What is the evidence for North Korea famine in 1990s? The most accounts about the famine in the Internet comes with references to US congress members who visited N. Korea, defectors or ...
5
votes
1answer
79 views

Were members of Soviet Republican Communist Parties also members of the CPSU?

I know that each Soviet Republic X had its own Communist Party of X. Question is: were members of these parties also members of the CPSU? I am interested here only in the formal side of things - I'd ...
14
votes
2answers
1k views

World War 1 Indian propaganda posters

In World War 1, because war broke out between the triple entente and the central powers (and they happened to have a lot of foreign colonies), the allies made posters to recruit soldiers from all ...
4
votes
1answer
80 views

Was Willem the Silent Dutch?

Willem the Silent is widely considered to be the father of the Netherlands, but I have found that he was born in Nassau, Germany, which was then part of the Holy Roman empire. His ancestors were born ...
6
votes
1answer
310 views

Alexander's seizure of “Brahmin” towns

While reading, I stumbled upon references to Alexander's seizure of Brahmin towns in what would today be called Pakistan. Googling did not fetch much information, most results are just references to a ...
7
votes
1answer
460 views

When and where did Louis Blanc say the famous “from each according to his abilities…”?

It seems that everyone agrees that Louis Blanc was the first to say "à chacun selon ses besoins, de chacun selon ses facultés", which is often translated as "from each according to his abilities, to ...
4
votes
3answers
172 views

How and why did the “Green Gang” hold the balance of power in Shanghai in 1927?

The line ups were a bit unusual, to say the least. On one side, you have some thousands of Communist party workers (probably not well armed) loosely aligned with several hundred thousand workers. On ...
5
votes
1answer
106 views

Of which countries was Ludwig von Mises a citizen?

This is a question regarding the economist and political thinker Ludwig von Mises. A short biography: Mises was born in 1881 in Lviv, then part of Austria–Hungary. He studied and worked in Vienna ...
1
vote
0answers
845 views

Effect of natural environment on the development of cultures [closed]

Let there be this quantitative question: how do the specifics of a natural environment influence the development of a newborn culture? Following are the specifics of the question: Which ...
1
vote
0answers
91 views

Did most colleges in the United States have semesters that began in September and ended in January during the 1890s?

I have been researching college calendars from the 1890s and have found that their semesters are very different from most "modern" semesters in the United States. Here are two examples: Texas, Bryn ...
6
votes
3answers
253 views

Military training in the Hijaz during early Islamic era

The expansion of the Islamic rule during early Islamic era was quite impressive. Before 629, Muhammad's rule was limited to one city Medina. 15 years later, at the end of Umar's rule, the Caliphate ...
2
votes
1answer
228 views

What role did the United States government and major corporations have in controlling dissent and protest starting in the late 1940s? [closed]

After the Second World War, numerous movements of dissent and protest amongst workers or soldiers which had been kept in check by the profits of war developed into significant movements, such as the ...
8
votes
3answers
379 views

How did the First French Empire and allies differ from the other European monarchies at that time?

During the Napoleonic Wars (especially towards the end), France and most of its allies (e.g. Kingdom of Italy, Duchy of Warsaw, Kingdom of Spain) are absolute monarchies. However, they seemed to ...
7
votes
1answer
667 views

Which parts of the Townshend Act were repealed in 1770?

The Townshend Acts were passed in 1767 and partially repealed in 1770. Which clauses were repealed at that time? I've looked around and found the original text, but I cannot find specifically what ...
14
votes
5answers
17k views

Why was China not colonized by any country?

Why didn't China become a colony of anybody, unlike most other Asian countries?
7
votes
2answers
2k views

What would be a typical rank for KGB intelligence offices spying abroad in the 1980s?

What would be typical ranks of KGB officers spying in the west during the 1980s? I know there were some western spies recruited by the KGB, that after defecting to the Soviet Union got/had ranks in ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

When did the Greeks start the practice of burying their dead relatives' bodies?

I was told that at the time around 1 B.C. to 2 A.D Greeks were still cremating bodies of their dead relatives. When did the Greeks start burying them?
4
votes
5answers
980 views

Can we classify holocaust as Hitler's war time strategic mistake?

Can we classify the Holocaust as one of Hitler's war time strategic mistake?
5
votes
1answer
45 views

What was the city of El Mirador called in Mayan?

El Mirador was a major city in the Yucatan during the Preclassic Mayan era. The name is obviously Spanish. What was it called by the ancient Maya?
6
votes
2answers
743 views

Historical and biblical names for bottles of wine

According to sources like the linked sizes list at Wikipedia entry about bottles of champagne and other kinds of wine, various sizes of bottles took their names after ancient Jewish kings and other ...

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